Vertenol is a pheromone preparation for monitoring and combating bark beetle typograph (7ps typographus L.), a dangerous pest of common spruce. The bark beetle typographer also populates pine, larch and fir. Beetles populate trees weakened by diseases or damaged by a hurricane, however, during an outbreak of mass reproduction, they attack healthy trees and can cause significant harm.
Vertenol is an aggregation pheromone of the bark beetle typograph. The preparative form – the foil dispenser – is a hermetically sealed bag with a cardboard insert soaked in a solution of bark beetle pheromone. When hanging in a trap, the dispenser is brought into working condition – it is opened, and attracting substances are emitted through the inner layer of the film. The biological effectiveness of the dispenser is maintained for two months, after which its replacement is necessary. For the bark beetle capture during the entire flight period (from late April to late August) two dispensers are required. The shelf life of the dispenser when closed is two years. For catching beetles, a barrier trap made of transparent plastic with a removable collection box for insects is used (see Fig. 24 B).
Vertenol is available in four formulations: Vertenol BS-1 and BS-3 are used to trap beetles, Vertenol BS-2 and BS-4 are used to attract pests to hunting trees. To signal the appearance of a bark beetle and monitor population dynamics, two or four traps per 50 ha are placed. To combat the bark beetle-typograph, two to four traps per 1 ha (preparations BS-1 and BS-3), or one dispenser per hunting tree (preparations BS-2 and BS-4) are placed by mass trapping.
The method of conducting pheromone monitoring of lepidopteran cabbage pests
Traps for monitoring the dynamics of the flight of Lepidoptera cabbage pests are set up on poles on plantings of cabbage and other vegetable crops 10-12 days before the expected start of flight of butterflies-scoop and cabbage moth on cabbage, using the average long-term data for the region as a guideline. Placement of traps is carried out taking into account the size of the field, its topography, possible locations of pest reservations, the prevailing wind direction, crop cultivation technology (cultivation, irrigation, protective measures). Traps put cabbage, tomatoes or other vegetable crops on each field, since the timing of pests and their numbers can vary significantly in different areas. On areas up to 5 ha, three traps are placed for each type of pest; on areas up to 10 ha – five traps;
Traps are preferably placed in a line perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. They are conveniently positioned along field roads, on field boundaries. Several traps must be installed in the central part of the site. The distance between the traps is 100-150 m. For trapping cabbage and other types of scoops, traps are attached at a height of 0.8-1.0 m from the soil surface; for cabbage moths – at a height of 40-50 cm. Each trap is numbered.
Inspection of traps before the start of the flight of butterflies is carried out daily, then once a week. In the field among the captured insects, the butterflies of the target species of the scoop and moth are counted. The results of the recordings are recorded in the journal.
Trapped insects are removed with tweezers. Glue liners are updated as the glue becomes clogged and dried, rubber pheromone dispensers are replaced every 35–40 days. On protective and agrotechnical days, it is advisable to remove interfering traps to prevent damage.
The beginning of the summer of the cabbage scoop is taken as the date of capture of the first butterflies. Mass flight is usually characterized by a sharp increase in catches. Mass egg laying in cabbage scoops occurs on the second or third day of the mass flight of butterflies. Usually it begins 6-10 days after the start of flight. Mass hatching of caterpillars occurs after 5-7 days of mass flight or 16-20 days after the start of flight. The embryonic development of eggs ends in 4-5 days with the accumulation of effective temperatures of 60 ° C during this period. With a decrease in temperature to 15 ° C and below, the period of embryonic development increases to 12 days.
Chemical treatments are confined to the mass hatching of caterpillars. To predict the duration of the first chemical treatment, the number of days required for the start of a mass flight (5-6 days), mating and oviposition (3-5 days) and embryonic development (4-5 days) are added to the start date of the flight of the butterflies, i.e. . in the amount of 12-16 days. Roughly this period can also be calculated on the basis of the date of the mass flight of butterflies and the size of their catches in the traps. Processing is predicted 5-7 days after the peak of flight when catching 6-8 butterflies per trap in a five-day period, adjusting the forecast for caterpillar counts on landings.
The timing of subsequent treatments is predicted taking into account the validity of pesticides, the onset of periods of mass flight of butterflies and oviposition, as well as the results of control counts of plant population by caterpillars.
In the initial growing season, which coincides with the flight of the first generation of cabbage moths, the period of maximum flight is determined from the testimony of pheromone traps, as for the cabbage scoop. 10-12 days after the peak of the mass flight, caterpillars are counted. In the second half of the growing season, when the flight of the II — III generations is observed, the examination is scheduled 5-7 days after the mass flight of the butterflies. If the survey dates for cabbage scoops and moths differ by no more than three days, then the counts can be combined.