Krishna is one of the main gods of the Hindu religion .
In orthodox Hinduism, Krishna is considered the eighth avatar (incarnation) of the god Vishnu ,  while in Krishnaism , Vishnu is an expansion of Krishna.
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- 1 Etymology
- 2 Dating of the Krishna cult
- 3 Legends of the god Krishna
- 1 Birth of Krishna
- 2 Children’s hobbies
- 3 Later hobbies
- 4 Death of Krishna
- 4 Sources
- kṛṣṇa, in the AITS (International Alphabet of Transliteration of Sanskrit) system.
- कृष्ण, in Devanagari script of the Sanskrit language .
- [krishná], in classical Sanskrit
- [kríshna], in modern Indian languages
- Etymology :
- In Sanskrit, Krishnameans ‘black’ or ‘dark’. According to tradition, the color of God’s skin is black, although in artistic figurations his skin is usually blue.
- the word krishnacould also mean ‘attractive’ if it is made to come from karshna (‘plow’, attract the earth).
Krishna cult dating
In the Rig-veda (the oldest text in India, from the middle of the second millennium BC), there was still no such shepherd god, nor his substitutes like Vasudeva . In those books, Vishnu – who is the god most related to Krishna – is a very secondary character.
Krishna and his legends appear for the first time in the Mahabharata (epicoreligious text of the 3rd century BC) – which contains the famous Bhagavad-gita , which are the teachings of Krishna to his friend, the warrior Aryuna – and in later texts such as the Jari- vamsa (‘the lineage of Jarí [Krishna]’).
There is the hypothesis that a number of regional traditions and deities may have merged in the stories of this god.
The religion of Krishna gradually developed in various Puranas (texts written possibly from the 3rd century BC), up to the poem Guita-govinda (from the 12th century) –where Krishnaist esotericism developed – and the Bhágavata-purana (from the 12th century ) ―Which dedicates thousands of verses to describe his life and works―.
There is a way to deduce the time in which Krishna would have lived, although a clue is given by Mahabharata himself , who describes a time that seems to be after the time of the Rig-veda (the first text of Indian literature, from the middle of the second millennium ane). The kingdoms that are protagonists in the Mahabharata – like the kurus or the iadus – had been secondary kingdoms in the Rig-veda .
Vopadeva (1150-1240), the author of the Bhagavata-purana , records for the first time a date of birth of Krishna: the midnight of the rojini naksatra – the eighth day after the new moon of the month of śravana or bhadrapada (August-November) .
Legends of the god Krishna
Birth of Krishna
Krishna appeared in the city of Mathura , in the region of Bharata Varsa , now known as India .
In this pastime He took Devaki as His mother, and Vasudeva as His father, although Krishna is the father of all creation.
On one occasion, Prince Vasudeva, son of King Surasena, after marrying Devaki, was on his way home in his chariot, accompanied by his new wife. Devaki was the sister of the demonic Kamsa, king of the province of Mathura.
As the bride and groom passed by in their chariot, a voice was suddenly heard from heaven: “Kamsa, you are a great fool. You drive the chariot of your sister and your brother-in-law, but you don’t know that this sister’s eighth child will kill you.
Kamsa took Devaki by the hair and prepared to kill her with his sword. Vasudeva convinced him of the advisability of not killing them and locking them in a dungeon for life. Vasudeva and Devaki began having children, one after the other, and Kamsa systematically visited them after giving birth and killed them before their eyes. When Krishna – the eighth son – was born, at midnight, the guardians fell into a deep sleep and the doors of the dungeon magically opened, then Vasudeva took the baby to the forest of Gokula , near the village of Vrindávana., where shepherds of cows of a tribe of the Yadus lived, who practiced nomadism and lived in carts pulled by oxen. Vasudeva entered the tent of the kinglet Nanda and his wife Yasoda, kidnapped their newborn daughter, and exchanged her for Krishna. Returning to his cell in Mathura, King Kamsa arrived to kill the eighth son, but taking the baby, she turned into a fierce goddess with many weapons (held by many arms), ascended to the roof of the dungeon, from where he mocked Kamsa and informed him that the eighth son had been transferred to another place.
The next morning, mother Yasoda did not remember exactly whether she had had a female daughter or a male child. Krishna grew up as the son of Nanda and Yasoda in Vrindavan. Kamsa, prompted by the flying sage Narada – who wanted to provoke the creation of anecdotes of Krishna – began to send his monstrous demonic servants to Vrindavan.
Krishna killed each monster that Kamsa sent one by one.
When Krishna was pre-adolescent, he began to have relationships with the gopis (shepherds), girls of his age who were already married to the older males of his village, Vrindavan.
On his thirteenth birthday, Krishna forever abandoned his friends in Vrindavan and traveled to Mathura (10 km away) under the excuse of a fighting contest organized by King Kamsa. He first killed all the contestants and finally attacked his uncle Kamsa with his fists. He released his biological parents from prison, and his grandfather Ugrasena (Kamsa’s father), also imprisoned by him.
Thus the shepherd Krishna became king of Mathura.
Years later, attacked by the neighboring King Yarasandha, Krishna escaped with all the inhabitants of Mathura and they moved to the shore of the Arabian Sea (3000 km away). On an island off the coast he founded a city, Dwaraka .
He freed 16,108 women imprisoned by a demon, and married them. With each one, Krishna had ten sons, such as Pradiumna, Aniruddha, Charudesna, Bhanu and Samba.
At the age of 89, Krishna participated in the Kuruksetra war , in which all his relatives, the Pandavas and the Kurus fought. At the beginning of the battle, Krishna had to convince his cousin and friend Aryuna of the need to murder all of his relatives. These teachings are found in the Bhagavad-guita , one of the most sacred texts in India, which is part of the Mahabharata . In the war, which lasted only 18 days, 1.53 million Pandavas and 2.41 million Kurus died. Only 8 pandavas and 4 kurus survived.
Death of Krishna
Thirty-six years after the war, his entire tribe and his thousands of relatives, children and grandchildren participated in a great festival in which they drank spirits, and killed each other with cane blows. Krishna leaned against a tree to meditate, and a hunter – mistaking Krishna’s yellowish clothes for the color of a deer – shot an arrow that pierced his foot, and Krishna bled to death at the age of 125, 7 months and 6 days.
According to the Bhagavata-purana , the surviving Yadu women and elders held a grand funeral.