For humans and other living things, the existence of the earth is of the utmost importance. The earth that was formed millions of years ago has its own characteristics. After the Earth was formed from a mass of gas, the earth gradually underwent a cooling process. As a result of this cooling, the outer portion of the earth becomes hard.
While in the interior of the earth it still remains, that is still a mass of hot substances and in a soft state. The cooling process that occurs in the surface layer of the earth has occurred for millions of years.
There are also substances that make up the earth which consists of various types of chemical and physical properties. These earth-forming substances during the cooling process had separated themselves in accordance with the differences in these properties.
From various research results on the physical earth, it can be seen that the rocks forming the earth starting from the earth’s crust to the earth’s core actually have different mineral compositions and chemical elements.
This shows that the structure of the earth in the form of layers. Humans and other living creatures, occupy the thinest or hardest part or layer of the earth. This part is called the earth’s crust.
Simply put, the structure of the earth’s layers can be described as resembling the structure of an egg layer. We know that eggs consist of three layers, right? The first is the outer layer of the eggshell or eggshell, then the white of the egg and the innermost one is the egg yolk.
Our earth can also be described as such, consisting of three layers, namely the layer of the earth’s crust, mantle or sheathing and core of the earth. Each layer of the earth has its own characteristics. These three layers are also often known as the main structure of the earth.
1 # Layer of the Earth’s Crust (Lithosphere)
The crust is also called the lithosphere. Lithosphere is derived from the word lithos which means stone and sphere which means circle or layer. Means, the lithosphere can be interpreted as a layer of rock forming the Earth’s crust. This layer is sometimes also referred to as a crust .
This earth’s crust is the layer of the earth which is the outermost or the top and hard in nature which envelops the mantle or envelope of the earth. The crust is much thinner when compared to other layers of the earth. The crust is floating above the Earth’s mantle which is softer in nature.
The thickness of the earth’s crust is only about 66 km and is composed of rocks making up the earth’s crust. Because it is the hardest part of the earth, or like this crust, it is referred to as the earth’s crust. This crust consists of continental crust and oceanic crust. Continent means land and ocean territory means vast territorial waters.
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2 # Coat or Sheath (Asthenosphere)
Asthenosphere is a layer that lies just below the earth’s lithosphere or crust. The thickness of the Earth’s mantle is around 2,900 km and covers about 80% of the total contents of the earth.
The mantle consists of thick, glowing liquid material with temperatures reaching 3,000 ° C. This asthenosphere is a mixture of various materials that are liquid, solid, and gas with high temperatures.
In general, the Earth’s mantle can be divided into two, namely the outer mantle and the inner matel. The outer mantle is thinner than the mantle and is between 10 and 300 km below the earth’s surface. The outer coat temperature is still in the range of 1,400 to 3,000 degrees Celsius with a specific gravity of 3.4 to 4.3 g / cm 3 .
While the Inner Coat is at 300 to 2,890 km below the surface of the earth. The temperature of the inner mantle reaches around 3,000 degrees Celsius. Rocks in the inner coat are thicker due to high pressure and typically have a specific gravity of 4.3 to 5.4 g / cm 3 .
3 # Layer of the Earth’s Core (Barisfer)
Barisfer is the core layer of the earth or core, and is the deepest part of the earth. The core layer of the earth is composed of layers of Nife ( Niccolum or nickel and ferrum or iron and nickel). Barisfer is about 2,900 km below the earth’s surface. The core layer of the earth can also be divided into two parts, namely the outer core and inner core.
a # Outer Core
Outer core or outer core is the core of the earth that is on the outside, or about 2,890 – 5,150 km below the earth’s surface. The thickness of this layer is about 2,200 km, and is composed of iron, a little nickel and 10% sulfur and oxygen. The constituent material of the outer core is liquid, thick, and hot that is glowing with a temperature of around 3,900 to 5,000 degrees Celsius with a specific gravity of 10-12 gr / cm 3 .
b # Inner Core
The inner core or inner core is the earth’s core which is in the inner layer or around 5,150 to 6,370 km below the earth’s surface. The thickness of the inner core is around 1,250 to 2,500 km.
The inner core is composed of iron, nickel and light elements such as sulfur, carbon and oxygen. The temperature in the inner core is very high, reaching 4,800 to 6,000 ° C. Although the temperature is high, the core in the earth remains in a solid state due to its very high pressure, which is about a density of about 10 grams / cm. The density of the core in about 15 gr / cm 3 .