Hypertension, also popularly known as high blood pressure, is a very prevalent disease among Brazilians, as it reaches almost 25% of the entire population. This is a silent disease , which means that, most of the time, it does not give symptoms or signs to those who are developing it.
Normally, high blood pressure is discovered in a routine consultation, when the doctor measures blood pressure. Pressure values above 140 × 90 mmHg, measured in two moments, are enough to consider a hypertensive person.
In this article, we will explain what high blood pressure is and its main causes, what are the symptoms of high blood pressure that may suggest the presence of the disease and why treatment and follow-up with a geriatrician should be performed. Check out!
What is high blood pressure?
Blood is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to all cells in the body. To do so, it must be pumped and run through the arteries and their branches and, on the way back, pass through the veins to return to the heart. In this way, the heart muscles exert a force and, in contrast, the vessels offer resistance, and it is the sum of these forces that determines blood pressure.
Pressure is necessary to provide the correct distribution of blood in the body. Very low pressures, for example, can leave blood in the brain lacking, causing fainting. Already very high pressures, although they do not always have symptoms, determine a serious condition for the organism.
This happens because the blood passes with great force in the vessels and, thus, forces its walls, which can cause aneurysms (bags of thinner tissue in the vessels) and even ruptures, which can cause a stroke, stroke. This condition also makes the body more prone to heart attacks, kidney problems and others.
What are its causes?
The cigarette is full of health-damaging components. In addition to having carcinogens, the smoke drawn into the lungs is able to release free radicals, substances that act by destroying and aging the cells of the body. Thus, smokers have an early aging of important structures, such as the carotid artery, the main artery in the neck, and other vessels, impairing circulation.
In addition, it is known that with each puff, due to cigarette compounds, the pressure rises momentarily. For people who smoke for most of their days, this can become a real problem.
The sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for hypertension. This is because it causes vascular changes, making the vessels more rigid, and this impairs their adaptation to different blood pressure values.
In addition, sedentary people are often overweight and have a worse cholesterol profile. The cholesterol is a major killer in the process, since it accumulates in the walls of arteries leaving them inflexible and reducing space to circulate blood, which also increases the pressure.
The salt is a key point in the balance of blood pressure. People who abuse salt in their diet have a tendency to retain water. This is a way for the body to try to compensate for the excess salt introduced through food .
However, the vessels remain with the same caliber, while the blood volume increases. This determines a higher blood pressure. It is for this reason that the diet to avoid high blood pressure and for hypertensive people is with a minimum of salt and free from industrialized products, since these usually have high salt content and other harmful components to health.
Currently, it is known that the development of blood pressure is linked to some factors that cannot be controlled, such as genes. It is estimated that people who have parents with above-ideal blood pressure are more likely to develop it.
However, external factors, such as diet, smoking and lifestyle, have a great influence on heredity. An individual with the genes for high blood pressure may, for example, delay the onset of the disease by having a healthy life.
What symptoms of high blood pressure can arise?
The headache can be an indication that the pressure is high, especially in people who are not used to presenting this symptom.
2. Ringing in the ear
Nuisances in the ear, such as noises and tinnitus, can arise when the pressure is too high.
3. Shortness of breath
Too high pressure triggers several compensation mechanisms in the body. Thus, shortness of breath and a sensation of chest pain may appear.
4. Double or blurred vision
As the blood is circulating at high pressure, its distribution may be compromised, especially in the cerebral circulatory system, which has very delicate vessels. Thus, symptoms such as double or blurred vision may appear.
Dizziness can arise for the same reason as before, as rapid blood circulation can compromise the distribution of oxygen. Thus, conscience and balance are impaired.
It is important to keep in mind that these symptoms are not exclusive to high blood pressure and, in many cases, do not appear in people who have high blood pressure. Symptoms and signs usually appear when blood pressure levels are extremely high, which poses a health hazard.
Thus, when you feel any discomfort or suspicion of high blood pressure with the aforementioned symptoms, you should see a doctor to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible.
Why should high blood pressure be treated?
High blood pressure is very prevalent in the population as it is a silent disease. Thus, it is found in routine consultations or when blood pressure levels are too high, causing symptoms.
The problem is that, due to high blood pressure, the individual may develop other serious conditions, such as kidney and eye problems . In addition, acute events such as stroke and infarction are also very prevalent in hypertensive people.
Did you like to know the symptoms of high blood pressure? To avoid worsening the condition it is essential to consult with a doctor regularly and carry out the correct treatment. To help you, take the time to know when to consult with a geriatrician is essential and take care of your health!