Zakat is one of the fundamentals (pillars) of Islam which contains a vertical dimension (Worship) and a horizontal dimension (Muamalah), building the value of devotion to Allah SWT while building harmonious relationships between people.
تلك آيات الكتاب الحكيم هدى ورحمة للمحسنينالذين يقيمون الصلاة ويؤتون الزكاة وهم بالآخرة هم يوقنون
It means: ” These verses of the Qur’an that contain wisdom, become guidance and mercy for those who do good, (ie) those who establish prayers, pay zakat and they believe in the existence of the hereafter .” (Luqman: 2-4)
إنما الصدقات للفقراء والمساكين والعاملين عليها والمؤلفة قلوبهم وفي الرقاب والغارمين وفي سبيل الله وابن السبيل فريضة من الله والله عليم حكيم
It means: ” Verily, the charity is only for the needy, the poor, the administrators of zakat, the mu’allaf who are persuaded in their hearts, to (liberate) slaves, those who are in debt, for the way of Allah and for those who are on their way, as a provision that is required of Allah, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise ”(At-Taubah: 60)
The teaching of zakat actually existed before Islam declared it. In the Talmud and the Old and New Testaments, the teachings of zakat have been stated. Even so, it cannot be ascertained whether the teachings of zakat in Islam are exactly the same as the teachings of zakat that existed in previous religions. One thing that is certain can be said that the spirit of the teachings of zakat in Islam and the previous religion is most likely the same. Because the religions brought by the Prophets and Messengers of Allah SWT are liberating religions that take seriously the problem of oppression to the weak and the powerless.
In Islam itself the teachings of zakat are developing. The teaching of zakat was introduced by Allah SWT when the Prophet Muhammad was still in the city of Mecca, before he emigrated to the city of Medina. The teachings of zakat during the Mecca period are still general. The publicity of the teachings of zakat during the Mecca period can be seen from the not yet stipulated nisab, haul, and special officers who handled it. In addition, the teachings of zakat are still recommended to do good to the poor and those who need help. This fact is very different from the teachings of zakat during the Medina period. During the Medina period there was a change in the teachings of zakat. From the legal side, the teaching of zakat is an obligation that is ilzami. In terms of sources and conditions, then determined what assets must be issued as well as the amount of zakat that must be issued. Likewise with people who collect and distribute them.
In the Qur’an, there are 82 verses that discuss zakat. The word zakat in the form of ma’rifah (definition), is called 30 times in the Qur’an 27 times mentioned in one verse with prayer. This shows that zakat has a level of position and urgency in Islam
The arguments that show the obligation to pay zakat are:
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
It means: ” And establish prayer, pay zakat, and ruku’lah with those who bow ” (QS Al-Baqarah: 43)
This is an order. And the origin of the order indicates mandatory (Qardhawi)
وإذ أخذنا ميثاق بني إسرائيل لا تعبدون إلا الله وبالوالدين إحسانا وذي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وقولوا للناس حسنا وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة ثم توليتم إلا قليلا منكم وأنتم معرضون
It means: ” And (remember when We took the promise of the Children of Israel (ie): Do not worship other than Allah, and do good to the mothers, relatives, orphans, and poor people, and say the words that are good to humans, establish prayer and pay zakat. Then you do not fulfill that promise, except for a small portion of you, and you always turn away “(QS Al Baqarah: 83)
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدَََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََََُُّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّّ
Meaning: ” And establish prayer and pay zakat. And whatever kindness you try for yourself, surely you will get the reward in the sight of Allah. Verily Allah sees what you do “(QS Al-Baqarah: 110)
Surah Al-Baqarah: 177, Surah Al-Maidah: 55, Surah Al-Hajj: 41, Surah Ar-Rum: 39, Surah Al-Ahzab: 33, Surah Al-Muzzammil: 20, Surah Al-Bayyinah: 5 and others -other.
Also the hadith history of muttafaqun alayhi which means: “Islam was founded on five bases: Pledging that there is no god other than Allah SWT and Muhammad SAW is a messenger of Allah SWT, establishing prayers, paying zakat, making hajj, and fasting in the month of Romadhon”. (HR Muttafaq ‘alaih)
Abu ‘Ashim adh-Dhahhak bin Makhlad narrated to us from Zakaria bin Ishaq, from Yahya bin’ Abdillah bi Shaifi, from Abu Ma’bad, from Ibn Abbas, that the Prophet (SAS) sent Muadz to Yemen, then he advised: “Invite them to a testimony that no god has the right to be worshiped except Allah, and that I am a messenger of God. If they obey that, then tell them that Allah requires them to pray five times a day and night. If they obey that, then tell them that Allah obliges them to give alms (zakat) to their assets, (ie) taken from their rich people and returned (distributed) to the needy poor(Bukhari HR no. 1395 and also listed in the hadith no. 1458, 1496, 2448, 4347, 7371, 7372)
Hafsah bin Umar related to us: Syu’bah narrated to us from Ibn Uthman bin Abdillah bin Mauhab, from Musa bin Talha, from Abu Ayub: That a man said to the Prophet, “Tell me the deeds that can put me into Heaven”. Someone present said, “What is the need, what is the need ?” The Prophet said: “That person has an urgent need. You worship Allah, and you do not associate Him with anything, you establish prayer, you pay zakat, and you connect friendship (HR Bukhari No. 1396 and also listed in the hadiths no. 5982 and 5983)
From the arguments above it is clear that the urgency of zakat is the true command of Allah SWT. Therefore we must submit and follow the commands of Allah SWT on this one, moreover zakat is included in the 3rd pillar of Islam.
Zakat is a part of Islamic law, which in essence fulfills the command of Allah in the framework of worship and obedience to the khalik, as well as to realize the benefit of human life.
Zakat is Maaliyyah Ijtimaa’iyyah worship which has a social function which is very important in building community welfare. In this case the zakat aims to:
1 Fighting poverty, bearing in mind the teaching of respect for the children of Adam (QS Al-Isra: 70), this is the main goal
2 Purification for donors
3 Reducing injustice
The essence of zakat worship is humanity and social justice. Zakat is a sign of brotherhood but because it is performed in a mass manner , zakat can have a great social impact . The socio-economic problems are indeed very many, especially with the condition from time to time that is constantly changing requiring zakat as a counterweight to the flow of income and wealth of the people. Zakat must not be indifferent to socio-economic problems because zakat is not solely as a form of servitude and self-service to God and as a self-centered worship (meaning in the form of rewards promised by God
The glory of zakat had occurred in the days of the Umayyads (post-Khulaurrasyidin), during the Caliphate of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. A leader who optimizes the potential of zakat as a force for poverty alleviation solutions in his country. This is proven by only 2 years and 6 months with a professional, comprehensive and universal management and system that makes the country prosperous and prosperous without any poor people in the country.
The urgency and wisdom of Zakat include:
First, Zakat has a high position in Islam, namely as one of the pillars of Islam. Allah SWT even aligns the word prayer and the obligation of tithing in the Qur’an.
فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَََِِ
It means ” … If they repent and establish prayers and pay alms, then give them freedom to walk. Truly Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful . ” (Surah At Taubah: 5)
Secondly, Zakat becomes an indicator of one’s level of faith, the more one wants to dedicate himself to Allah, the more he wants to be included in the believers, in this case he seeks to continue to always fulfill all his obligations.
قَدْ أَفْلَحَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى صَلَاتِهِمْ خَٰشِعُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ ٱللووََََََََََََََََََََُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُُِِّّٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰٰ
It means: ” Surely those who believe, (ie) those who are solemn in their prayers, and those who distance themselves from useless deeds and words, and those who pay alms. “(Surat Al-Mu’minun: 1-4)
Third, Zakat is a dharuriyat (certain cases), so whoever leaves zakat becomes an infidel and departs from Islam. Unless the person is new to Islam, his ignorance towards Islamic laws is forgiven. Or the person lives in an area far from Ulama.
ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بمآءاتاهم الله من فضله هو خيرا لهم بل هو شر لهم سيطوقون ما بخلوا به يوم القيامة ولله ميراث السماوات والأرض والله بما تعملون خبير
It means: “Never let those who are mischievous with the treasures that God has given them from His gift think that ignorance is good for them. Actually stinginess is bad for them. The treasure they proclaim will be put around their necks on the Day of Judgment. And Allah belongs all inheritance in heaven and on earth. And Allah knows what you are doing “(Ali Imran: 180)
“From Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said, the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said,” Whoever is given treasure by Allah, then he did not pay his alms, on the Day of Resurrection his wealth was made for him to become a male snake aqra ‘(whose scalp fell out because of Allah’s treasure he has a lot of poison in his head), which foams at the corners of his mouth. The snake was put on his neck on the Day of Judgment. The snake holds it with both corners of its mouth, then the snake says, ‘I am your treasure, I am your savings’. [HR Bukhari no. 1403]
والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة ولا ينفقونها في سبيل الله فبشرهم بعذاب أليم, يوم يحمى عليها في نار جهنم فتكوى بها جباههم وجنوبهم وظهورهم هذا ما كنزتم لأنفسكم فذوقوا ما كنتم تكنزون
It means: ” And those who keep gold and silver and not spend it in the way of Allah, tell them (they will get) a painful punishment. On the day the gold and silver were heated up in Hell Hell, then burned their foreheads, their hulls and their backs (then said) to them: “(At Taubah: 34-35)
Fourth, Zakat means to cleanse or purify. People who give alms with the intention of Allah SWT, then Allah will cleanse the soul and treasure and cause peace, happiness, security and welfare of life
خذ من أمولهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها وصل عليهم إن صلوتك سكن لهم وٱلله سميع عليم
It means: “Take alms from a portion of their property, with that alms you cleanse and purify them and pray for them. Surely your prayer (becomes) peace of mind for them. And Allah hears the omniscient again knowing”. (Surat al-Taubah: 103)
Fifth, Zakat means to grow and develop. The mathematical logic when someone pays zakat his wealth will be reduced. But Allah SWT denies it and emphasizes it in the Qur’an, that the person who makes zakat, then his wealth will always be sorted out, given blessings, and safeguarded from various problems and fulfilled his fortune.
وما آتيتم من ربا ليربو في أموال الناس فلا يربو عند الله وما آتيتم من زكاة تريدون وجه الله فأولئك هم المضعفون
It means: “And something usury (additional) that you give so that he increases in human wealth, then usury does not add to the side of God. And what you give in the form of alms that you intend to achieve the pleasure of Allah, then (who do so) are those who multiply (reward) “(QS Ar-Rum: 39)
مثل الذين ينفقون أموالهم في سبيل الله كمثل حبة أنبتت سبع سنابل في كل سنبلة مائة حبة والله يضاعف لمن يشاء والله واسع عليم
It means: “The parable of the people who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is similar to a seed that grows seven ears, in each one hundred seeds. Allah multiplies (rewards) for whom He wills. And Allah is vast (His gift) is All-knowing ”
Sixth, Zakat is related to the work ethic, that is, someone will be required to look for a lawful livelihood, tithe sincerely and correctly will keep away from despicable behavior
Rasulullah SAW said: “Verily, Allah will not accept alms that have an element of deception” (HR. Muslim Imam)
Seventh, Zakat will cause people to be more active in performing mahdlah worship, such as prayer and others
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
It means: ” And establish prayer, pay zakat, and ruku’lah with those who bow ” (QS Al Baqarah: 43)