Importance of Furniture In our Life.Furniture is difficult to classify, despite the relatively small number of types of products. (The enumeration of different types of household furniture will contain only 50-60 items). The complexity of the classification is explained by the fact that there are common models that are difficult to attribute to a specific group. For example, a table-cupboard for a kitchen is a cabinet product with a capacity, but at the same time normalized by the size of the working plane, that is, like a table, we include it in the “kitchen furniture” group. If you classify furniture according to the purpose of the rooms, then there should be groups for dining rooms, bedrooms, living rooms, etc. This has been done for many years, but the purpose of the rooms, as we noted at the beginning of the brochure, is mixed, there are products wandering from room to room under different conditions of picking; group boundaries have become undefined.
We came to the beginning of the modern stage in the development of furniture with a stable classification of furniture according to the principle of sets – indivisible sets of furniture designed for equipping one room for a specific purpose. The assortment was very poor, it included only the most necessary (and even not all) products. Just 10-12 years ago, we did not produce secretaries, furniture for schoolchildren, kitchen cabinets.
The architectural features of the products in different headsets were not repeated, therefore, the combined furniture of the rooms of a modern apartment, corresponding to the conditions for their use, led to a violation of unity in the artistic appearance of the rooms. A table from the cabinet could end up in the bedroom, and a bookcase in the dining room. The headset principle of completing products was outdated and did not meet the needs of the time.
Designers have proposed a new principle for completing furniture products – sets. By a set is meant a large group of products, including all the main types of products for their intended purpose, solved in a single artistic manner. It was assumed that the buyer will be presented with various options for shopping kits, selected from one set, or any products from the set, completed by the buyers themselves at their discretion and needs.
The introduction of kits in design, manufacturing and trading practices is a more advanced way to meet market requirements. Families living in different apartments get the opportunity to choose and buy exactly what they need, without the coercion that is necessarily present in the headset.
In parallel with the acquisition of furniture sets, another new method of furniture emerged and developed – functional groups. It turned out that in the conditions of zonal furnishing of the room, it is not necessary to observe the exact coincidence in the figure, in the artistic appearance of the products used in different zones. It has been experimentally proved that the furniture of the dining area may differ from the furniture of the recreation area or work area. For children’s furniture it is necessary that it be different from an adult in its colorful, cheerful, and slightly toy appearance. So, a completely new type of kit came into life, which in the old assortment corresponded only to the living room three.
New ideas in the field of acquisition immediately affected the development of furniture architecture. In recent years, the range of furniture for leisure has increased several times, but this is still not enough. The designing of a series of products, the production of functional groups of furniture began to develop, new methods of product design appeared. Now it is considered optional to use the same fabric for the upholstery of chairs and the Sofa – more beautiful and more correct if the functional groups of products in the same room differ in the color of the upholstery. With great attention, designers decide on the shape of lounge chairs. Passed the stage of headset chair. He is often given a completely individual form that is not repeated in other products. The chair became a sculptural element in the set of room products, introducing a variety of appearance and interior.
Architectural and compositional ideas and their development affect the assortment of furniture, its structure. Here is what was written on this subject in 1924: “… old models are little suited to new conditions of life: it is necessary to create new art, and interesting searches are planned in this area. In the home environment of modern mankind, objects that are not amenable to artistic processing are foreseen, if necessary: telephone, typewriter, piano or gramophone, plugs, switches, sewing machine, central heating batteries, hot and cold water taps, vacuum cleaner, fire signal, diagrams, reference books and professional supplies. Such a situation cannot be processed in the style of Catherine or Alexander … “. The author was mistaken in assessing the artistic possibilities of the household appliance industry, but he very correctly noted that enrichment of household appliances poses new challenges in the field of furniture art. By the way, already in 1924, cabinets with columns and pilasters were criticized as belonging to a “cheap philistine apartment” 2.
The modern assortment of household furniture is expanding, it is impossible to imagine an era without stands for radio and television sets, telephones, storages for records or tape recorders, tapes, etc. Creating products of only specialized purpose and their inclusion in furniture leads to a gradual clutter of the apartment, therefore, in the latter Over the years, a group of combined products previously unknown received particular development. The central piece of furniture for a mass-type apartment is a combination cabinet containing various combinations of compartments for dishes, books, tableware, linen, a receiver, and decorative items.
In recent years, many models of combined cabinets of the most diverse types, with different combinations of compartments, have been created. These cabinets made the familiar boundaries between cabinets for a specific purpose vague and complicated the question of terminology – there are no special names for the new combined cabinets. Combined cabinets with a cupboard are often called sideboards, but this is completely wrong, since a sideboard is a cupboard only for dishes up to 1100 mm high, on the top plane of which tableware is prepared before serving.
The furniture of the rooms with the use of large combined cabinets made it possible to solve the main problems – compactness and storage capacity. It can be argued that the new type of cabinets * will not go out of use for a long time.To date, several fundamentally different structural types of combined cabinets have been developed.
The earliest type of meoel, which appeared in Europe in the 20-30s, is sectional. At the heart of the assembly of this furniture. The cabinet is formed by installing sections on top of each other and composing them along the front. It is possible to gradually increase the size of the cabinet, rearrange the sections, and hence change the appearance of the assembled products. With all these advantages, sectional furniture has one serious drawback that reduces its profitability – when assembling the product from sections, double walls arise, so the consumption of materials and, consequently, the cost of 1 m3 of usable capacity increase.
Sectional furniture is widespread throughout the world. There are many dimensional systems underlying the dimensions of sections. Some of them include large sections, forming, for example, the body of a wardrobe. In this case, the cabinet can no longer be called sectional, it is single-case, but if it is part of a product group, then its body is also a section.
Of all the many options for sectional furniture, the most stable in the assortment were bookcases. Books that appear in the house do not disappear, do not break and do not wear out. Their number is increasing and requires new tanks. The increase in the volume of cabinets using sections is most convenient today. It is no coincidence that the most popular type of a new bookcase in the 20s was a sectional cabinet, known as Swedish.
Sectional furniture gives some advantages in the technological process. Elements of a relatively small format are used in the cabinet design, and the sections obtained from them are smaller than single-body products, which facilitates the assembly, storage, and transportation processes. These advantages were used in the design of our recently spread sideboard without a niche (also mistakenly called a sideboard) and the “classic” sideboard. They consist of upper and lower cabinets. By the principle of formation, these buffets are similar to sectional. In the “classic” sideboard, an intermediate element is installed between the upper and lower cabinets, which forms a niche.
However, real sectional furniture appeared in the assortment only in the late 50s. Often referred to as sectional single-cabinet cabinets of the same height with flat side surfaces, easily assembled into walls. One could not argue because of their name, but such cabinets have little in common with sections, do not give the consumer the benefits of genuine sectional furniture, although they are classified as sections.
Fig. 1. A set of furniture for teens; universal prefabricated cabinets (VPKTIM)
Shelving is close to sectional furniture in design. It is also assembled from sections, but they are not installed directly on top of each other, but are hung one above the other on supporting structures – racks. In addition to the voluminous sections in the shelving furniture, it is possible to use flat elements – shelves.
In racks, racks of three main types are used: they are mounted completely between the floor and the ceiling, reinforced with the upper end in the wall and freely standing on the floor (in this case, the racks can be moved without disassembling).
The compositional and decorative possibilities of shelving furniture are much greater than that of sectional furniture. Shelving furniture gives the impression of transparency, airiness due to the use of open shelves and therefore less obstructs the wall. Shelving is convenient to use as room dividers into zones. In rack furniture, it is easier to rearrange the elements. When using the entire height of the room, the racks are mounted more conveniently and more reliably to the ceiling than sectional furniture.
A significant advantage of hanging sections on racks compared to installing sections one on top of another is to save space. Sections are hung at intervals in height, so open shelves form on top of each of them. Only the lateral vertical walls remain doubled.
The most rational constructive type of combination furniture is a folding furniture or, more precisely, a universal furniture, assembled directly at the place of consumption almost completely from flat panel elements (except for drawers and accessories). Collapsible furniture does not have double walls. Its production is reduced to the production of individual parts that do not require assembly until transportation to the apartment. It is easy to imagine how comfortable this type of furniture is, requiring a minimum of storage space, transported in compact bags.
Indisputable and architectural advantages of universal furniture. While preserving the main advantages of sectional furniture, combined wardrobes of a universal type, devoid of such an annoying facade element, such as double-wide edges of the body shields, have a more slender, light appearance. Getting acquainted with the illustrated prospectus of universal furniture in the store, the buyer can choose the composition he needs with a specific set of cabinet compartments, with the necessary dimensions. ”Universal furniture according to the wide choice of cabinet options of different widths, heights and functional purposes is now the most convenient for the consumer .
The listed three types of combined furniture have recently been included in its range and are its youngest part, characterizing the new, recently emerged features of mass-type dwelling furniture. The sectional, shelving and multi-purpose furniture were concentrated and received a specific architectural embodiment, the specific requirements of the new apartment.
Case products of the classical composition, not designed to block with each other, have not lost their significance. Products of this type are called stand-alone, although this name cannot be considered accurate – after all, a sectional cabinet or shelving stand separately from something.
The architectural solution of non-block type products is based on giving them an independent artistic value, a developed, decoratively enriched silhouette; proportional division of the facades within the same set can be decided differently, without the obligatory coincidence of the levels of various elements, in contrast to the block arrangement of cabinets. Products of the classical type require a larger area for furniture and a longer wall length, so we cannot consider them cabinets of the future. They remain in the assortment of furniture as belonging to the old housing stock or apartments with a spacious layout and furniture, which does not have a big impact on the main direction in interior architecture. In the future, turn mass-type dwellings into combined furniture from a wall-mounted product to a product that replaces the wall.
The modern assortment of household furniture is characterized by the development of a group of transformable (mutable) products. They cannot be considered a product of our time. Transformed and some products of the classic assortment. It is significant that now the number of products designed taking into account their frequent modification has increased. The reason for the development of transformable furniture products is to rationalize the furnishings of mass-type dwellings, due to economic, psychological and functional factors. For clarity, consider the furniture of a modern one-room apartment.
An apartment is, first of all, an overnight place, which means that it must have a furniture product intended for a person’s sleep. This product has always been a bed. As soon as we put it in a one-room apartment, the room turns into a bedroom. But this contradicts the idea that a person has about a bedroom as a quiet, intimate room, not suitable for receiving guests and busy day use, but this cannot be avoided in a one-room apartment. Obviously, you need to use in the furniture a product that, using at night as a bed, at other times of the day can be used in a different guise, and decent and comfortable. This explains the occurrence of sofa beds and similar products.
A sliding dining table is so necessary that it makes no sense to prove it; It is convenient and needed in any apartment. And what about a table for games, needlework, reading? Set separately? But in one small room the two tables are cramped. Therefore, now there are models of tables that are transformed not only by the size of the countertop, but also by its height above the floor. Given that a small family in a separate apartment uses the kitchen as an everyday dining room, it is not necessary to put a dining table in the room. In the leisure room, people can serve a low table, which turns into a dining table if necessary.
Fig. 5. Combined transformable product that performs the functions of a chest of drawers, a secretary and a dressing closet (VPKTIM)
It is possible that by virtue of habit, not everyone will agree with this option of furniture, but it will not get worse from this. Ten years ago, no one imagined headboards below 1 m above the floor. But she still became lower.
In our country, probably, there is not a single family without students; many people work at home on a book. So, you need a piece of furniture designed for this work – a desk. Another table in the room? The conditions of the area do not always allow. Historical memories came to the rescue. The secretary was once a common accessory of the office – a cabinet with a folding or sliding board on which you could write. This technique was the basis for the design of a modern product that has received widespread recognition. It can be said that a second life began in the past, a lordly, and today quite democratic product, almost obligatory not only in a one-room apartment.
The modern range of furniture is developing more than ever. At exhibitions and in literature, we constantly meet more and more new types of products with various transformation schemes, and all of them significantly improve our relationship with the apartment and things that fill it. Very convenient are a stool that unfolds in a stepladder, a dressing table with a lifting mirror (not everyone likes to constantly see a mirror in a room), folding or sliding beds in a children’s room, and many other things that are included in everyday life.
A lot of new things appeared in the architecture of upholstered furniture, mainly due to the development of the material base of production. The modern chemical industry has provided furniture makers with new materials that displace bulky spring kits and other traditional methods that ensure soft products. The dimensions of the soft elements have become smaller. This entailed a change in proportions in the direction of greater grace, ease. Elastic materials, easily lined in the form of a frame or molded in a predetermined configuration, necessitated the creation of completely new lines of armchairs, sofas, soft and semi-soft chairs. Designers now have the opportunity not only to improve the shape of the chair, arranged according to the traditional scheme, but also to create completely new models,
Despite the noticeable enrichment of the assortment of upholstered furniture with models of a new pattern, a new form, we have not yet provided consumers with chairs for functional purposes, associated with various options for using the chair in everyday life. In the assortment of furniture there are few working chairs, deck chairs and chairs with a variable slope of the seat and back.
Convenient to find their consumer sets of chairs and benches for legs; high back chairs for elderly, inactive people; armchairs with a shelf in the locker for an ashtray or a glass of tea – this chair does not connect a person to the table and makes it possible to comfortably retire for relaxation.
The main trend in the development of a modern assortment of household items, including furniture, is the creation of products not only new in form, but also new in function or combination of functions. This trend is caused by the ever-growing variety of forms of leisure activities, the development of domestic culture and the culture of things. People tend to have more and more convenient things for all occasions, and industry should feel this need and respond to it with new types of products.
In recent years, there has been an increase in demand for coffee tables that were not produced 10-12 years ago. An elementary compositional scheme of such a table is a board on legs. For several years this scheme has received an interesting and very reasonable development. First, an additional shelf appeared under the countertop, then retractable auxiliary half-shelves and drawers were added. Some models have a sliding device according to the scheme of a large dining table, in others the tabletop is decorated under a chessboard. At the last exhibition of furniture in the anniversary exhibition of VDNH, side tables with built-in bars, mobile tables on wheels were shown. Thus, a coffee table, gathering around itself, like any table, people for a common pastime, is able to serve different forms of such pastime, becomes more useful and convenient in everyday life.
Against the background of the development of the assortment of upholstered furniture, dining and coffee tables, chairs, the lag in the group of desks becomes especially noticeable. Now the assortment of desks is much poorer compared to pre-revolutionary ones, although there are tens, if not hundreds of times more people who eat than in semi-literate Tsarist Russia. There are so few desks by type of model that they are even difficult to analyze. The secretary is still only a folding tabletop, and not everyone likes a temporary, unstable workplace, especially if it is possible to allocate a permanent place to the table.
The assortment of children’s, a very responsible group of furniture has increased. For children it is necessary to do it conveniently (they have their own peculiarities of addition), amusing (almost at the level of a toy), elegantly and easily in operation. The best modern models of children’s furniture meet these requirements. But some issues remain unresolved. Designers are not able to convince workers in industry and commerce to organize the production of bunk baby beds. At exhibitions, almost half of adult visitors and all the children spoke for them, for whom a bed with a ladder is primarily an interesting game, gymnastics. Abroad, bunk beds are widespread. This is not caused by the crowded rooms – it’s just more rational not to take up a lot of space under the sunbeds for the most energetic and mobile members of the family and free up more space for games.
The expansion of the assortment in recent years has given people many useful and beautiful furniture products. True, not all furniture was successful, for example, a three-legged stool, which was introduced almost everywhere, turned out to be swollen, unstable. Nevertheless, the stool should stand on four legs, and it is quite possible to give it a beautiful modern look.
In the kitchen furniture group, our industry has done a lot in terms of variety and appearance of products. Now the assortment of furniture contains a large number of individual products of kitchen furniture, sets, which are especially appreciated by the consumer.
There is a gradual improvement of our ideas about what kind of furniture should stand in the kitchen. Undoubtedly, the buffet with a niche is obsolete. He cannot ensure the normal operation of the hostess, since a desk is needed nearby, and this takes a lot of space. It is more correct to use a narrow tall cabinet for large household items, and to provide the main area for equipment of the workplace between the sink and stove. The opposite wall of the kitchen can be used as a dining table, or as an auxiliary cabinet of shallow depth.
Furniture sets with new content appear. Fundamentally very interesting, for example, sets of folding country furniture. The details of all its products are packed in two large boxes for transportation, and after assembly of the products the boxes become cabinets. The entire headset can be transported on the roof of a passenger car.
The principle of furniture collection has not outlived itself. In a number of cases, furniture is needed precisely for the classic headsets – dining room, bedroom, cabinet, and new ones – for children, teenagers, country, kitchen. There are almost no sets for a one-room apartment in the assortment of furniture, so the furniture for one-room apartments must be selected individually or to complement the living room sets with furniture for storing clothes. Sets of tourist-country-type light furniture are clearly needed, especially since light metals and synthetic materials are increasingly entering the industry.
The furniture industry of the USSR over the past decade has stepped far forward. The gap between the volumes of housing construction and furniture production narrowed; the assortment has been significantly updated, approaching the world level in the quality of design and art development of models.The development of the art of modern furniture in the country is in full accordance with the entire course of development of modern architecture, the motto of which is everything for man.