Theoretical foundation of Equality as the right of all human beings.- Known by all, equality is as a basic principle thanks to which all individuals are granted the same possibilities before the same rights. This concept emerged in the eighteenth century coupled with other values, Liberty and Fraternity, becoming the basis on which our modern democracy as we know it today has been founded, since The Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
And so, Equality, like Freedom, is an inalienable right for the human being, insofar as it is part of the person from birth, and is a condition that will be attributed to him until the last day of his life. But Equality does not mean that all human beings should be equal, just the opposite, Equality presupposes that differences are something intrinsic to people, and these, due to the characteristics that distinguish them, should not be deprived of these rights. For this reason, equality is one of the fundamental values that have shaped current political systems based on legal and political equality for all citizens.
Variation of the concept of equality over time
We can easily say that the concept of equality has been transformed in numerous ways throughout historical time. This is mainly due to the fact that the human mind and the cultural system vary as life itself varies and implies new needs or realities.
In Antiquity, the concept of equality clearly did not exist as we know it today and we could even risk saying that it did not exist directly since societies implemented a complex network of power and classes from which one could not escape and which meant destiny. history of an individual: if he was born humble, he died humble. As the West began to develop more modern economic practices, that is, when capitalism began to emerge in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, some groups began to claim political rights and thus the idea of economic power linked to the political equality of participate and make decisions. We cannot yet speak, however, of a complete notion of the term.
It is only from the eighteenth century onwards that it becomes more complex and begins to approach what we know today. This occurs from the deep social inequalities that are generated with the Industrial Revolution and harsh capitalism. We can point to the French Revolution and the Russian Revolution as cornerstones on the road to a broader notion of equality.
Equality and its links with political power
From these values, we have created our political system. So that we all have a place in it, despite our inequalities; be they of sex, race, economic, even physical or mental condition. So that the legal norms are universal and their application in practice is egalitarian, so that everyone can participate in the formation of the government, and we are all socially treated with equity.
In this way, we can say that Equality has the property of forming the political system from plurality and thus, articulating social relations from diversity. It serves as a control mechanism for Power in all senses, since it establishes social and political relations on the basis that all men have the same value, as well as the same rights, opportunities and obligations. Which, going a step further, means that there are no legitimate social classes or policies to exercise dominance over others, that there are no groups with special rights, or that they lack certain obligations.
In this sense, we can deduce that the importance of equality resides in two essential ideas that have served to develop it as one of the fundamental values on which our system is structured. These ideas are the acceptance of diversity and parity in social relations, which are still necessary ingredients today for democracy to become effective. Equality implies the application of a system of greater justice on the differences that still exist today between human beings.