Bracing . Very common solution both in repairs of old buildings and in construction of new works. It is the action of placing piece of wood or metal between two elements to prevent their approach.
[ hide ]
- 1 Terms and Definitions
- 2 Use of bending
- 3 Execution
- 4 Sources
Terms and definitions
- “Codal” is the wood or piece that is placed between two elements to prevent their approach. The elbows are structural elements placed inside an excavation, in a horizontal position between the two walls and perpendicular to them, which are used as lateral support in the piping and sheet piling. They work with compression and buckling maintaining the stability of the excavation, of piping and sheet piles before the horizontal thrust of the land being contained. They can be made of wood or steel . Its failure can be caused by compression, buckling or cutting.
- Elbowing is nothing more than securing or holding a span, pit, ditch, etc.
Use of the bend
Alterations are a very common solution today in new construction or interventions in old buildings.
In addition to the usual use to contain the thrust of the gables (lateral faces of the excavations) they allow to contain the overturning of walls and structures, including the stirrups of arches and vaults with loss of stability in buildings; taking advantage of their shape or the proximity of other buildings.
They are executed conceived as reinforcements that support boards that will receive the thrusts of land or of the mentioned overturning, horizontally opposing it to the same land, building or to another nearby building.
In its simplest form to protect wells or contain walls of sleds, pairs of boards are arranged successively formed by vertical boards of 25 mm (1 in .) Thick by 1.5 m long joined by stringers of 100 x 75 mm ( 4 x 3 in.) X 1.5 m joined by struts at their ends where they are contrasted by elbows of equal dimension to the stringers and parallel boards.
In the joints, cookies and wedges are used, as indicated in the beam shoring. The elements can also be fixed to the floor and nails with nails.
In small skateboards, a board and even the elbows can be removed, simply pressing the heads of the beams (mandarin by cubanism), the heads of the stringers being fixed by constriction to the normal walls or by introducing them into crates made for that purpose.
When the affectation is limited to part of the structure, simply placing a stringer or a tail can suffice.
In excavations of great instability of the element to be contained, the stringers and elbows are first arranged forming a frame and supporting the stringer on a table mediating provisional wedges, the boards that are fixed under the table of the next frame slide between them.
In buildings, it is common to start by layering from the lower levels and it may be necessary to use landscape boards and supported by struts (parales by cubanism) at 1.5 m with elbows every 1.5 m high that support the nearby building. Prefixing the struts on wedges, the planks slide landscape between them and the damaged wall resting on the lower ones. Similarly, the boards slide vertically when stringers are used.
When the elbows are lengthened they will require bracing with belts of 50 x 150 mm (2 x 6 in.) Every 1.5 m vertical and oblique to the elbows forming reinforcements that when similarly braced with the following reinforcements will form a space armor and as such It must be projected and calculated when its magnitude economically merits it.
The probable magnitude of the layered loads and the constitution and state of the building that will receive the elbows should be analyzed, specifying the place where it will be done and defining the use of the struts or stringers and even boards to distribute them; It may be necessary to continue the transmission inside the building by continuing the bending with a shoring to the edges of the floors or continuing with a shoring through the lower levels to the ground floor or basement floor if any.