Planetary engineering is the use of technology with the aim of influencing the global environments of other planets in order to increase their potential to be inhabited by humans. Terraforming refers to the technology of planetary engineering that would change the climate of the planet Mars and transform the planet into one that supports the life forms that live on planet Earth. One possible way to change this involves reducing excess heat by again trapping carbon dioxide from the surface of Mars into the atmosphere. Some of the concepts proposed for shaping Mars are currently prohibitive with regard to natural resources and economic costs, while others are probably more feasible and achievable with the technology of the future.
How is it possible?
Terraforming Mars would bring three main interrelated changes: the construction of the atmosphere, the raising of the temperature of Mars and the construction of the magnetosphere. The Martian atmosphere is thin and has an extremely low surface pressure compared to the Earth’s atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mainly made up of carbon dioxide, a known greenhouse gas, and once Mars begins to heat up, carbon dioxide can help keep thermal energy close to the surface of Mars. Furthermore, as it warms up, more carbon dioxide should be introduced into the atmosphere from frozen reserves on poles to improve the greenhouse effect. The two construction operations of the atmosphere and grilling would offer a symbiotic improvement in favor of terrforming. However, due to the lack of global magnetic fields, maintaining the tense atmosphere is a challenge. The basic plan for creating a livable environment on Mars is to introduce a sufficient number of greenhouse gases into the Martian atmosphere through a heating cycle, dissolving the polar ice caps and releasing carbon dioxide.Based on this plan, scientists are expected to be able to completely terraform Mars in about 100,000 years.
Motivation behind Terraforming
Some argue that the growing human population of the Earth requires more resources and alternative solutions, leading to the idea of colonizing other planetary bodies that have characteristics similar to Earth, such as Mars and the Moon. The planet Mars is the most Earth-like planet of all the planets in the solar system and may have had an even more Earth-like environment throughout its history, with a theorized dense atmosphere and a lot of water that has been lost for millions of years. The proximity of the planet coupled with the similarity of Mars with the Earth makes it the most feasible terraforming target in the solar system. Ethical considerations on terraforming surround the possible displacement or extinction of indigenous life, such as the microbial, if such a life exists,
Challenges for Terraforming
There are considerable difficulties in trying to terraform Mars, in particular the key environmental factors of air pressure and low gravity. The gravity on the surface of Mars is 38% compared to that of the planet earth and it is not known if it is sufficient to prevent problems arising from the absence of gravity. Some of the problems experienced by astronauts who have experienced weightlessness include vomiting, nausea, lethargy, headaches, dizziness and general malaise. Other extreme cases include muscular atrophy, deterioration of the skeleton, redistribution of body fluid, slowing of the cardiovascular system, reduced production of red blood cells, weakening of the immune system, nasal congestion, balance disorders, sleep disorders, loss of body mass and problems with other complications. The surface pressure on Mars is extremely low, far below the critical Armstrong limit of 6kPa, which means that the body fluids exposed like tears, saliva and the wetting liquid in the alveoli inside the lungs will evaporate.