Anthracnose, also called leaf spot, is a plant disease characterized by the presence of spots of various colors and sizes on fruits, leaves and buds of plants.
These spots expand and produce the defoliation of the branches and the drought of the fruits, causing their death.
This disease is caused by various types of fungi (Discula, Septoria, Venturia, Phyllosticta, Marssonina and Colltotrichum) and affects fruit and forest trees, grasses, vegetables and vegetables.
The best way to prevent the presence of Anthracnose is by doing a good cleaning of the soil material where the spores are found until the moment they are activated at the beginning of spring. On the other hand, wind and rain are usually the main propagation factors.
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How to prevent and treat anthracnose?
If Anthracnose has affected your bushes or trees, it is best to cut off the branches or parts that are infected. Now, if we talk about herbaceous species, it will be best to eliminate the entire crop in case the infection is very large.
If you water and fertilize properly, you can increase the defenses of your plants and make them much more resistant to infection.
It is also advised to remove weeds or weeds from crops to improve aeration and thus prevent accumulated water.
If you carry out an analysis of the infected material, you will be able to know which are the fungi that have attacked your plants to be able to apply the correct fungicide.
Bordeaux broth can help you fight Anthracnose
Bordeaux broth is composed of a mixture of copper sulfate, water and lime.
It serves to combat fungal diseases and, although, it is not so harmful to the environment, it cannot be considered a 100% ecological product, since, being dragged by rain, it usually pollutes the water.
It is perfect for controlling fungi such as anthracnose and mildew.
There are many trademarks that feature this product; However, you can make it at home by mixing 100 grams of copper sulfate and 70 grams of quicklime per liter of water. Follow these instructions:
- Dissolve copper sulfate and quicklime separately in a plastic container and stir very well.
- Empty the container containing the quicklime dissolved in water in another container and then add the contents of the container where you have dissolved the copper sulfate.
- Mix with a wooden utensil and check the degree of acidity through the introduction of an iron object in the Bordeaux broth. The oxidation of iron will indicate excess acidity, which will imply that you should add more lime until the iron does not oxidize.
You can apply it as a spray, either on trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, in order to prevent the appearance of anthracnose. This should be done shortly after the preparation.
Types of Anthracnose
Anthracnose of plum and peach and cherry
It is produced by fungi of the species Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, acutatum and laeticolor. The first two create orange spots on the leaves of the trees and, the last, can be formed on the fruits, on the leaves and the young branches. This disease develops rapidly when the temperature fluctuates above 25 degrees Celsius and the humidity is high. The spores are dispersed from these crops to the trees by wind or rain. It uses fungicides that contain benzimidazole in the case of the gloeosporoid fungus and removes the affected branches to control the laeticolor.
It is because the species Colleotrichum lindemuthianum is present generating dark reddish spots on the fruits of beans and leaves. These evolve generating a kind of dryness of whitish color on them. On the other hand, the seeds turn black or darkened. If you want to prevent this disease, get rid of the whole crop when the infection is very important and do not use the contaminated seeds. Make crop rotation, and in less severe cases use a fungicide such as benomil or Bordeaux broth. Apply sprayed every 15 days until the plants begin to bloom.
Anthracnose of the willows
The fungus that produces it is called Marssonina salicicola and usually affects all willows, especially weeping willow. What this disease does is generate brown spots on the leaves that progressively deform and fall. Cut the affected stems, burn the fallen leaves and fumigate the trees, when the leaves begin to appear, with Bordeaux broth or a copper fungicide.
Anthracnose of bananas
It is generated by the fungus Gloesporium nervisequum and usually affects bananas, causing the leaves to brown and drying the young branches. The treatment of the disease focuses on cutting off the affected parts and removing all the fallen leaves.