In a modern apartment there are about 3-5 devices that need constant and uninterrupted internet (let alone an office). In order for all these devices to receive stable wi-fi, it is worth using a router . But simply plugging in the router is not enough; you also need to have its ports open. Why this is needed and how to cope with the task if the ports are closed is described in detail in the article.
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How will opening ports help?
As many people know, a router (including the D-Link brand ) is a device that allows you to distribute the Internet to several devices at the same time. By default, it usually only works to receive traffic. And if the user wants to use the router to transfer information to the Internet, he will have to make some settings, or rather, open the appropriate ports. In the language of professionals, this is called “port forwarding on a router.” Why is this needed? It’s simple: without open ports, information outgoing from you is simply ignored by a router (for example, such as the D-Link DIR-615S ) and will not get into the network.
Why might you need to transfer information to the Internet? There are many such situations: for example, it is necessary when chatting, conducting video conferencing, for the correct operation of online multiplayer games, applications like μTorrent, etc.
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You can make the setting and forwarding yourself, the main thing is to clearly follow the rules. Often, information on how to forward ports is already in the complete instructions for routers. A simplified manual looks like this:
Getting Started: Ways to Find an Address
Every home or office router has its own IP address. Finding those few numbers is the first step towards properly configured ports. So what to do:
- find on the computer “Network and Internet settings” (this is done by clicking the left mouse button on a special icon in the lower right part of the display, or through the Control Panel);
- find your connection there (this can be either Local Area Connection if you have a stationary PC with an Ethernet cable connected, or Wireless connection if you have a laptop, tablet or other portable device);
- in the next window, find “Information” (they can also be called “Connection properties or another similar name”);
- here all the information about the network connection is indicated, but the necessary numbers are written in a specific line, which is called “Default Gateway” or “IP Address”. These are four numbers separated by three dots.
This set of numbers can be written down or remembered. It will come in handy for subsequent actions.
The same information can be found in other ways, for example, through “Properties” – “Internet Protocol version 4”. In the new section that opens, there will be a column “Default gateway”. This is the network address of the router.
Users who do not have a network icon in the left corner of the screen can find out the address through the command line. To do this, simultaneously hold down the Windows and R buttons on the keyboard, then enter cmd in the line that appears and select OK. A command line will open, in which you need to add the ipconfig command and press ⎆. The screen will display the IP address of the router (in the line “Default gateway”).
And one more way, suitable for the lazy. If, when activating a new router (for example, ASUS RT-AC51U ), the address, login and password have not changed, then you can view them from the back of the device. There is a special sticker on the bottom of the case with all this information.
Direct port setting
The port number is chosen depending on the purpose of its opening. For example, ports 20 or 21 are for FTP protocols; port 80 is for http, etc. There are more than 65 thousand of them. You can view the port number that needs to be opened in the settings of the game or the program for which it is opened.
To open ports on the router, you need to change some items in the device interface. It is important to understand that port forwarding is done not for equipment that supplies the Internet, but for each user (PC) connected to the device.
For example, if 10 devices “connected” to one router and you need to open a specific port for them, then an entry for each of these devices is indicated in the device settings. That is, there should be 10 such entries in the settings.
The principle of opening plus or minus is the same on all routers, regardless of the brand. Therefore, it makes no sense to prescribe a manual for each manufacturer separately. The article offers instructions on how to open ports using the example of a TP-Link router .
See also: How to properly configure a Tp-Link router: 5 simple steps to activate the device
On a note! P irst, you start working on setting, you need to check: maybe required port is already open. This can be done through the 2ip software. There is a line in the program where you should enter the port number. After that, the Check button is pressed. The software will immediately show whether the desired port on the router is open or closed.
Procedure for TP-Link
Port forwarding is done in 5 simple steps:
- Open any Internet browser and enter the IP address of your router into the search box. How to find out these 8 digits was described above.
- Enter your data into the window, indicating your login and code. Most users change them the first time they connect to the router. For those who do not bother with such moments, the standard login combination (admin / admin) is suitable.
- The main screen of the router will open with all the settings items. The menu is located on the left side of the page.
- In the list, find the item “Forwarding”, “Virtual servers” and “Add new”.
- The next section of settings will appear on the screen, where you should enter the desired port number, the received network address of the router and the protocol.
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After performing the prescribed manipulations in the “Virtual Services” section of TP-Link (as an option, TL-WR841N models ), an open port will appear for the specified network address. The line with the address must be checked periodically, especially if several devices are connected to the router, because the device can independently change user addresses. It would be right to reserve a specific address for yourself right away and not worry that it will be “given” to someone else.
Port does not open: reasons
It happens that even after completing all the steps of the instructions step by step, the desired port could not be opened. Why it happens? Here are the most common causes and solutions: Reasons why the port cannot be opened
|Reasons why the port cannot be opened||How to fix the problem|
|The provider itself blocks the opening of additional ports||This situation is most often observed in apartment buildings, where one router serves an entire staircase of users.|
|Solution : switching to a more expensive tariff plan, where there will be no restrictions, or connecting the service of a permanent (static) IP address, which will make it possible to configure ports from a home router.|
|The IP address of the router or server is incorrect||We need to double-check the numbers of these addresses. You can check it through the local network. If you can’t get through to the server, you need to carefully look at its settings.|
|Problems with port forwarding page settings||Perhaps some data in the “Virtual Services” section was entered incorrectly.|
|Solution : Go through the entire port-forwarding instructions again to make sure the settings are correct.|
|Firewall or antivirus software is blocking ports||Try to disable the program. If we are talking about antivirus, perform the required scan. You can find the firewall by going to the Computer Toolbox (listed).|
You need to change or add one more port to the router: procedure
Any changes the user wants to make to the router settings are done through its interface. An example is shown all on the same TP-Link ( Archer C60 model ).
The first steps are standard: you need to enter the device address in the search engine and fill in the lines with a login and password to enter. After the device menu opens, select the already familiar “Forwarding” item in the list of settings and then “Virtual servers”.
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A complete list of all the ports made will appear on the screen. Opposite each of them there are active “Edit / Delete” fields. With their help, you can change any items or make a complete delete from the settings.
To add a new port, use the button of the same name. It is located below the list. After clicking, you will have to go through the entire path described above again.
Note : When opening ports for multiple users, you need to be very careful with the address numbers. The system will skip absolutely identical records (that is, it will not generate errors), but they will not work .
Possible problems when opening ports
If the user correctly made all the changes in the router (for example, TP-Link Deco M5 MESH ), turned it on and the system worked properly, then everything is fine and you can use it for health. But it happens that after setting up and activating the device, the system still fails. What is happening and how can I fix the problem? An overview of the three most common problems follows.
The IP address has changed
This has already been discussed above in the article. When a user opens a port, he indicates the IP address of the computer. If you do not immediately “score” it after yourself, after turning on / off the computer or router, the latter can automatically change the address to a new one. It is logical that in this case the open port becomes useless, because it does not function.
To avoid such a “puncture”, you need:
- go to “Network Connections”;
- select “Internet Protocol version 4”;
- change the automatic acquisition of an IP address to “Use the following IP address”;
- independently enter the desired set of numbers.
After that, even if the PC is overloaded or the router itself changes, the address will remain the same, and all open ports will work smoothly.
The software for which the port was opened makes changes on its own
This problem is most often encountered by those who like to download Internet content via torrent. Each time this program starts, it tries to change the port address. But since in the settings of the router (and models of the Asus brand too) the address is indicated as unchanged, an imbalance is obtained. The result is that the torrent refuses to work.
You can fix the situation by making changes to the torrent settings:
- activate the program;
- open the settings menu with the key combination Ctrl + P;
- find in the left part of the “Connection” window;
- register the port address specified in the router for this program;
- select the line “Random port at startup” (check the box next to it).
Confirm all changes made by clicking OK.
Programs do not work even with an open port
The problem here is most likely in the router’s firewall. To quickly solve it, you need to disconnect. To do this, on your computer you need to go to the “Basic Security” section and select “Disable”. Now check the correctness of the settings and operation of the open port.
Having made a decision to open one or several ports on your router (TP-Link or Tenda ), you need to remember that they not only provide excellent operation of services and programs, but also spread a red carpet for many malicious viruses. You should only keep ports open if they are used regularly. As soon as the need for them disappears, it is better to remove or disable ports. This is especially important for corporate devices, where a large amount of valuable information is collected.