Nutmeg is an evergreen tree. Which originated on the island of Moluccas, Indonesia. Currently it is grown in many countries including India. The dried fruits of nutmeg are used in aromatic oils, spices and medicinal form. The nutmeg plant is generally found to be around 15 to 20 feet in height. On which fruit plant takes about 6 to 7 years after transplanting. Its raw fruits are used in making pickles, jams and candies. Many varieties of nutmeg are found. But the fruit that grows on the tree of Myristica species is called nutmeg. From which nutmeg along with mace is also obtained. On its plants fruits and flowers grow in bunches. Whose shape looks like a pear. Which burst after cooking. Out of which its seed emerges.
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How to cultivate nutmeg
Tropical climate is considered very suitable for the development of nutmeg plants. The nutmeg plant can easily grow to a height of around 1300 meters above sea level. Its plants do not even need more rain to grow. Its cultivation is considered more beneficial for the farmers in less expenditure.
If you too are planning to cultivate it, then today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
For cultivation of nutmeg, deep fertile land with proper drainage is required. But for the rapid growth of commercial plants, its plants should be grown in loamy loam soil or red laterite soil. The pH value of its cultivated land should be around normal.
Climate and temperature
The nutmeg plant is a tropical climate plant. Its plant requires both winter and summer seasons to grow. But more winter and summer are not considered suitable for its cultivation. Winter frost is considered harmful for its cultivation. Its plants require normal rainfall to grow. Also during the growth of plants in the beginning, they need light shade.
Its plants need a temperature between 20 to 22 degrees at the time of germination in the beginning. After germination its plants need normal temperature (25 to 30) to grow. By the way, its fully prepared trees grow well at a temperature around 37 in summer and minimum 10 degree in winter.
Many varieties of nutmeg are found. But some varieties are grown as produce. In India, it is grown extensively in some states of South India.
This variety of nutmeg has been prepared by Indian Institute of Spices Crop Research, Calicut. Its plants start yielding about 8 years after transplanting. Around 1000 fruits are obtained from each of its plants at one time. The average production per hectare from its dried peeled fruits is found to be around 3100 kg when the number of its plants is around three and a half. Both nutmeg and mace are obtained from its plant. In which 70 percent nutmeg and 30 percent mace is obtained.
This variety of nutmeg has also been prepared by the Indian Spice Crop Research Institute, Calicut for cultivation in areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its plants start yielding about 6 years after transplanting. On which the flowers start coming for the first time after about four years of planting. About 25 years after planting, when the plant becomes fully tree then the average production per hectare of this variety of plants is found to be around 3200 kg.
Apart from these, there are some advanced varieties which are grown to get the best yields.
Planting of nutmeg plants is prepared in the field. Before that it is necessary to prepare the field well for planting trees. Because after planting nutmeg plants give yield for many years. At the beginning of its cultivation, clean the field thoroughly and destroy the residue of old crops in the field. After that plow the soil of the field with deep plows. After plowing, leave the field open for a few days. So that harmful pests present in the soil are destroyed in the beginning.
A few days after leaving the field open, plow two to three diagonally through the cultivator of the field. After that, run the rotavator in the field and make the soil brittle. After making the soil brittle, make pits in the field at a reasonable distance in the field. While making the pits in rows, the distance between each pits should be around 20 feet. Also, there should be a distance of 18 to 20 feet between each line. At the time of digging the pits, their size should be 1.5 to 2 feet deep and two feet wide. After digging the pits, fill the appropriate amount of organic and chemical fertilizers in the soil by mixing them. These pits are filled and prepared about one to two months before planting.
For the cultivation of nutmeg, its seedlings are prepared in nursery through both seed and pen. The biggest problem in preparing the plant through seed is in the selection of its male and female trees. Because it is very difficult to choose male and female in its plants without any fruit. Therefore, when prepared from seed, most of the plants are obtained as males. For this reason, its seedlings are prepared through pen planting. While preparing the seedlings through the seed, mix its seeds with appropriate amount of fertilizer and apply it in polyethylene filled with prepared soil. And keep the polythene in a shady place. When its plants germinate well. Then plant them in the field after about a year.
Pen pressure and grafting is the best method of preparing plants through pens. But grafting method is very easy to prepare the plant. To prepare the plants by grafting method, prepare a pen shaped like a pencil from the branches of the well-producing variety of plants. After that cut these main cuttings of wild plants and tie them with polythene in V (<<) form. Apart from these, you can learn more about other methods of preparing plants through pens from this article.
Plant planting method and time
Nutmeg plants are planted in pits prepared in the field. But before planting the plants, make another small sized pit in the middle of the pits. After making the pit, it should be treated with cow urine or Bavistine, so that the plant does not have to face any diseases in the initial stages. After treating the pits, remove the polythene of the plant and apply it. After that, press the stem of the plant for two centimeters from the soil.
The most suitable time to plant its plants is the rainy season. During this time, its plants should be planted from the middle of June to the beginning of August. Because during this time plants get proper environment to grow. With this, plants grow well. Apart from this, farmers can grow their plants even after March. During transplanting, its plants need more care when planted.
Irrigation of plants
Nutmeg plants need more irrigation in the beginning. Initially, its plants should be irrigated at an interval of 15 to 17 days during the summer season. And in the winter season, water should be given at intervals of 25 to 30 days. Plants do not require water during the rainy season. But if the rain does not occur at the right time and the plants need water, then the plants should be given water as per the requirement. When the plant is fully grown, the plant needs only five to seven irrigations a year, which should be done during the weeding and planting of the plants.
Amount of fertilizer
Nutmeg plants need fertilizer just like other plants. Initially, at the time of preparing the pits before planting its plants, 10 to 12 kg of organic manure in each of the pits as dung manure and 200 grams N. Pk The quantity of the mixture is filled with soil. Plants should be given this quantity of fertilizer continuously for three to four years. After that, along with the growth of plants, the amount of fertilizer should be increased.
A fully prepared tree of nutmeg should be given 20 to 25 kg of cow dung and half a kilogram of chemical fertilizer annually. Its trees should be given this quantity of fertilizer before they become flowers on the plants. For this, prepare an enclosure around the plant, leaving a distance of two feet from the stem of the plant, half-fit deep and one-half to two-feet wide. In this circle, fill organic and chemical fertilizer with soil and fill it. After that put soil on it and press it. By giving fertilizer in this way, all the roots of the plant get the same amount of fertilizer. Due to which plants grow well.
Weed control in nutmeg plants is done in a natural way. For natural weed control, weeding should be done in the pits after 25 to 30 days of planting of the plants by lightly planting the plants. After that, whenever any kind of weed appears in the pits, it should be removed.
Initially, its plants require 7 to 8 weeding a year for weed control. But when the plants fully take the shape of the tree, then they need only two to three hoeing. Apart from this, if any kind of crop has not been grown in the vacant land, then plow through the powertiller of the field for weed control in it. The plowing of the field should be done after the rains start showing weeds.
The yield can be increased by taking care of any crop or plant. Similarly, in nutmeg cultivation, quick and good yields can be obtained by taking care of its plants. Its plants need care from the beginning. Initially, during the development of its plants, do not let any branch of any kind be built on them at a height of one to one and a half meters. This makes the stem of the plant strong and the shape of the plants good.
After that, when the plant becomes fully grown and starts giving fruits, then its harvesting should be done. Its plants should be harvested after pruning of the fruit. During this time the plants are in dormant state. Plants should be removed along with diseased and dried branches seen on the plants at the time of pruning. This creates new branches in the plant. Due to which the production capacity of trees increases. And the peasant brothers get more production.
Nutmeg plants start yielding about 6 to 8 years after transplanting. During this time, the farmer brother can take good production by growing short time gardening, medicinal, vegetable and other crops on the vacant land in his field. Due to which the farmer brother continues to get proper production from his land and he does not have to face any kind of financial troubles. By the way, it can also be cultivated as a harvest in the coconut fields grown 15 to 20 years ago.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Many types of diseases are seen in nutmeg plants. If not taken care of in due time, the production of plants as well as their growth also affects to a large extent.
It is a fungal disease caused by nutmeg plants. The maximum effect of this disease on plants is seen on its branches. On the onset of this disease, the leaves of the plant become yellow and fall. And the diseased branches of the plant start to dry from top to bottom and become black. Gondia disease starts in the plant when the disease grows. Due to which the whole plant is slowly dried and destroyed. For the prevention of this disease, diseased branches should be cut and removed. And the Bordeaux mixture should be coated on the cut. Apart from this, in case of disease, the appropriate amount of carbendazim should be sprayed on the plants.
In nutmeg plants, black flake disease spreads due to pests. The effect of which is visible on both the stem and leaves of the plant. Pests of this disease feed on the leaves and stem of the plant. And suck their juice. Its insects emit viscous substances while sucking the juice of the leaves. Due to which, black fungus appears on both leaf and stem of the plant. The growth of plants stops when the disease progresses. And fruits are not able to be made well. For prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of canola oil or monocrotophos should be sprayed on the plants.
The white pungent disease on nutmeg plants is spread through the Marassmius pulchima fungus. Which is visible even if the plants remain in the shade for a long time. The effect of this disease is seen on the underside of the plant. Due to the presence of this disease, they appear like a mesh of white thread on the trunk of the plants. Dry leaves containing mycelium are the main reason for the spread of this disease. For prevention, spraying of boards mixture should be done on diseased plants.
In nutmeg plants, this disease is seen in nursery while preparing plants. Insects of this disease are found on the leaves and stem of the plant, which appear light brown in oval form. The entire plant gets destroyed when the disease progresses. To prevent this disease, neem oil should be sprayed on the plants. In addition, spraying the appropriate amount of monocrotophos is also beneficial.
Horse Hair Blight
It is a fungal disease that spreads on nutmeg plants. Which propagates in plants through Myrasmianus echinus. The effect of this disease is seen on both the leaves and the stem of the plant. On the onset of this disease, black fungus starts appearing on the diseased plants. Which when viewed from a distance, the size of the bird’s snout is visible. For prevention of this disease, there should not be a continuous shade on the plants for a long time. And the diseased plants should be sprayed with the appropriate amount of boards mixture or carbendazim.
In nutmeg plants, this colitotrachem is spread through the Gylisperiodis fungus. The effect of this disease on plants is visible on its leaves. Due to this disease, dark brown-black spots appear on the leaves of the plant. The color of these spots becomes light red as the disease progresses. And holes are formed in the leaves. Due to which plants stop the process of photosynthesis. And their development stops. For the prevention of this disease, 1 percent boarding mixture should be sprayed on the plants.
In nutmeg plants, the effect of white skin disease is seen on the leaves of the plant. The flake of this disease appears as bunches on the lower surface of the leaves of the plant. Which looks flat brown. Due to which the leaves of the plant become yellow. The leaves of the plant dry up and fall as the disease progresses. And the growth of plants stops. For prevention of this disease, proper amount of monocrotophos should be sprayed on the plants.
Fruit harvesting and pruning
Nutmeg plants start yielding about 6 to 8 years after transplanting. But full yield from plants comes after about 18 to 20 years. The fruits on this plant are ripened after about 9 months of blooming. Its fruits are obtained from June to August. Its fruits start appearing yellow after cooking. After ripening of fruits, their outer covering starts to explode. Then its fruits should be chopped. After the fruit is harvested, the nutmeg is separated from the mace. In the beginning the color of mace appears red. Which turns light yellow after drying.
Yields and benefits
Yields and benefits in nutmeg cultivation increase with the growth of the plant. More expense in planting its plant comes in the beginning. A fully prepared nutmeg tree yields about 500 kg of dried nutmeg annually. Those whose market price is found to be around 500 rupees per kg. Due to which the farmer brother easily earns two to two and a half lakhs from one hectare at a time.