The story of the marketing tries to explain how it is born, evolves and develops the process of marketing .
To talk about the history of marketing, we must first say that it is a tool used by companies to generate processes of exchanging something of value within the market.
Companies are the economic agents responsible for carrying out the production process in the economy. Production is the transformation of inputs into products.
This means that companies have to manage scarce resources to efficiently carry out their production process, so they are organized in departments such as:
- Human resources: Where the personnel working within the company are managed, to maximize their tasks within the process.
- Production:Where production inputs are used efficiently, so that this process is as inexpensive as possible.
- Finance:Here we seek to optimize the financial resource or money, because a company without financial capital cannot perform its task correctly.
- Sales:It is where the techniques for marketing the product offered are applied, the ones in charge of this task are the sellers.
- Marketing:It is the department in charge of developing, generating and delivering something of value to the market for its exchange process.
A company can have many more departments, but these would be the most important.
What is a market?
A market is a process that starts when there are people who intend to buy or act as plaintiffs and other people who intend to sell and their role is to be the bidders of the satisfiers.
Next, and in the form of a summary about the history of marketing, we will discuss the origin, as well as the different approaches to marketing.
Origin of marketing
It would be at the beginning of the 20th century, specifically in 1902, when Professor Jones of the University of Michigan first used the term. A few years later, the discipline grew until it reached its autonomy and independence in 1911. Shortly after, in 1914, Lewis Weld brought to light the first scientific research on marketing. Only one year later the first marketing book would be published by Arch Wilkinson Shaw.
It is also important to highlight, in addition to its historical origin, its initial definition. At that time marketing was responsible for two things: production and product. And, considering that, he tried to make the distribution as efficient as possible. Likewise, marketing was limited to commercial activities, for profit. Later, the discipline expanded to other spectra such as non-profit organizations, foundations or even politics.
The different approaches in the history of marketing
After the previous explanations we have to say that initially in the markets there were more applicants or people with many unmet needs, while the existing companies were very few. That meant there were very few products in the market.
- Focus on the production department:Because there was a lot of unsatisfied demand, almost any product that hit the market was successful. This situation caused companies to focus all their attention on the production process, since it would be enough for them to produce efficiently and the company was a winner in the market.
We can note that the companies that took advantage of the industrial revolution and the series production models were the most recognized in the market, such is the case of the Ford automobile company.
- Focus on finance:When companies improved and maximized their production process, the great economic depression of 1,929 in the United States came. This economic event affected the world economy and what was needed was money. Both for companies to produce and for consumers to buy.
This resulted in the companies that performed better during that time were the ones that managed the financial resource best.
Then the recessive process passed and the companies then knew how to produce and had money, then the position of supply and market demand was changed, now there was more supply of similar products in qualities and prices; in relation to market demand.
- Sales-centric approach: When the products were many in the market, companies used sales techniques to convince consumers that their products were better than those of the competition and therefore should buy them
As we realize up to this point there is no marketing, because practically companies are forcing the consumer to adapt to the product that the company knows how to produce and buy it. They focus on solving the need of the company, but they don’t care about customer needs.
- Marketing-oriented approach:The real marketing arises when companies realize that the attention of companies must first be directed to find unsatisfied needs in the consumer and then prepare the satisfiers who can respond better to meet them.
For that reason before launching a new product to the market, companies do market research, to give that satisfactory attributes and benefits that the consumer wants.
- Focus on competitive marketing:All companies focus on marketing and each one seeks to give the best solution to customer problems, that’s why the manuals talk about competitive marketing, because the only companies that are successful are those that commit to Seek to best meet the wishes, requirements and needs of consumers.
To exemplify this situation, we observe that in the market there are many companies that produce cell phones, which initially served to solve the need for communication. But currently competitive marketing has achieved that every time a cell phone provides the consumer with additional functions such as camera, videos, entertainment, calculator, research medium, purchasing processes, sales processes, financial applications, weather, calendar, calendar, clock, alarms , scanner and surely you can list many more.
To end the competitive marketing allows us to have more and better satisfiers today, companies know that to the extent that an unmet need is found, this becomes a business opportunity.
Thanks to this today we have innovative products, of excellent quality and with comfortable prices in the market.