History of Australia

Before colonization, Australia was inhabited by numerous tribes of aborigines, the native peoples of the region, who according to research, lived there for more than 60 thousand years. It is estimated that at the beginning of colonization there were about 500 tribes in Australia spread throughout the region, who spoke 300 different dialects, with approximately 175,000 aborigines in total.

Although it was spotted by Portuguese and Spaniards at the time of the great navigations, Australia was only invaded when, in 1770, the English captain James Cook was sent to investigate the lands that had previously been devalued. The captain disembarked for the first time on the east coast, on April 28, 1770. He continued on his journey northwards, disembarking at the Cape of York, where, on August 22, 1770, he proclaimed the possession of the lands in the name of the King George of England. He planted the English flag on the ground and named the land New South Wales.

Australia’s Discovery

European captain James Cook discovered Australia when he was exploring the continent for the United Kingdom. The discovery was on August 21, 1770 and was named New South Wales. The region had already been visited by the Portuguese in 1522 and in 1525 and by the Dutch in the 17th century. It was postulated by the geographer Ptolemy, who called the continent of Terra Australis Incógnita with the hypothesis of being the source of the Nile River. The australis land provoked obsession and imagination to the navigators who thought there was great wealth of gold and spices. It took nearly 300 years of travel for James Cook in the late 18th century to discover the land that is now called Australia. After discovering that the australis land was not the southern lands, he also abandoned it as did the Portuguese. It was not until 1642 that Australia was officially discovered. A Dutchman named Abel Tasman arrived on an island in southern Australia and then called it Tasmania. In 1868, the uncovered land was used to house 168,000 Englishmen who were serving time, were thieves, cheaters and convinced. In 1830, the sending of the English had already been suspended and then it became coveted by the English farmers. In 1851, large quantities of gold were discovered throughout the territory, which attracted several curious and greedy for fortunes.

Colonization began in 1788, when England decided to make the new land a penal colony, sending prisoners with sentences greater than 7 years to that region, which they had previously sent to the United States (independent since 1776). The first fleet sent had 11 vessels, which brought approximately 1,300 people. On January 18, 1788, the vessels reached Botany Bay. Considering the region as unsuitable for settlement, the Captain sailed north where on January 26, 1788 he founded the first colony, where the city of Sydney is located today. By 1835, English prisoners were no longer sent to Australia, and the convicts who were there had already served their sentences. These were given a piece of land to live on.

From 1850 onwards, the country became a destination for adventurers, especially Chinese, as gold mines were discovered in several regions. The Chinese were frowned upon at the time, as they worked for lower wages than Australians.

Australia became part of the British Commonwealth in 1901, when it came to have a federative and parliamentary structure. Independence took place in 1942, although England’s sovereign (king or queen), continued to be considered the formal head of state. Only in 1986 were these ties severed.

From the 1940s to the beginning of the 1970s, immigrants from all over the world were attracted to Australia.
As a result of colonization, Aborigines were virtually wiped out from Australia. Currently, the Aboriginal population represents less than 1% of the total Australian population .

The Discovery of Australia took place in 1770 through the European James Cook.

The Oceania was the last continent occupied by Europeans. As with Brazil, it is necessary to treat the term “discovery” with caution, since neither Brazil nor Australia were completely uninhabited lands before the arrival of Europeans. The territory we now know as Australia was occupied since about 40 thousand years ago by the so-called Aborigines . Oceania, like America, had long had the existence of its local civilizations, so it was not a virgin land for discovery.

On the other hand, there are reports and evidence of the passage of various peoples through Oceania and, especially, Australia . However, the people who discovered the place were those who declared possession of the new lands and promoted their colonization. The same thing happened with Brazil, there are reports of other peoples passing through Brazilian lands before Pedro Álvares Cabral , but it was this one that declared sovereignty over the lands of what today is Brazil for the Portuguese Empire. Then making Brazil go down in history as a land colonized by Portugal.

The Discovery of Australia took place amid the search for a common myth at the time. It was believed that there was a continent to the south on which was the source of the River Nile. This theory was postulated by the geographer Ptolemy who called the supposed continent Terra Australis , which aroused great obsession and sharpened the browsers’ imagination. Everyone believed that the southern lands were rich in gold and spices.

Several navigators dedicated themselves to finding the southern lands. But those who did visit Australia were the Portuguese, in 1522, and the Dutch, three years later. The visits took place in the 16th century, and the hunters of the southern lands took three centuries to return to Australia. It was then that on August 21, 1770, as a representative of Great Britain, Captain James Cook explored the continent of Oceania and arrived in the territory known today as Australia.

The Discovery of Australia revealed that the new lands did not represent the long-awaited continent of the South. James Cook called the site New South Wales and declared English sovereignty over the lands. But without finding what they were looking for, the British left Australian territory aside. After a long time only that the English intensified their activities in Australia. In 1851, gold was discovered in great quantities throughout the territory and attracted greedy and curious people. In 1868, about 170,000 Englishmen were sent to Australian lands. Among them were thieves, cheaters and convicts who would serve their sentences.

Australia became independent in the early 20th century.

by Abdullah Sam
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