There is a saying that language is an opening and spreading knowledge. This is possible because the development of knowledge, including culture and technology, which is getting faster and faster, will not be widespread without the means that can be used to disseminate it. One of these means is language. In other words, language as a means of communication has an important role in disseminating it. People can convey all ideas or ideas through language.
As a means of communication, language also requires media as a means of disseminating it. One of the media that can be used as a vehicle is mass media, whether in the form of audio, visual, audiovisual, print or electronic. Therefore, it can be said that mass media and language are two inseparable things, and the development of the language used to communicate is also inseparable from the existence of mass media.
As a means of communication, the mass media also has a very important role in the development of knowledge. Hadiono (in Putera, 2010) states that the role of mass media in social life is not just a means of diversionin social life, the release of tension, or entertainment, but the content presented has a significant role in the social process. Apart from playing a role in the social process, mass media also has a big role in supporting the development of language, especially Indonesian. Asmadi (2008) states that the mass media is the main supporter of the Indonesian language at the beginning of the language struggling with boundaries by the colonialists. The important role of mass media needs to be raised considering that mass media plays an important role in various aspects. On the other hand, what is the role of the mass media in the court? This question is possible because a dictionary is a book that documents language along with the meaning and usage of a language, including its use in the mass media.
2 . Definition and Purpose of Dictionary
The dictionary is a reference book that is familiar to most of the language community. Many dictionary definitions are provided by language observers, especially those who are experts in the field of dictionaries or maybe also pekamus (people who compile dictionaries). Among the definitions provided by some dictionaries or pekamus are as follows.
The dictionary in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI, 2011) is defined with several meanings, namely (1) a reference book containing words and expressions, usually arranged alphabetically with a description of their meaning, usage and translation; (2) a dictionary is also a book containing a collection of terms or names arranged alphabetically along with an explanation of their meaning and usage.
Webster’s Dictionary (2003), among others, provides a definition with (Top of Form
1) reference sources that are printed in electronic form containing words, usually arranged alphabetically accompanied by information about form, pronunciation, function, etymology, meaning, syntax, and idiomatic, (2) references in the form of an alphabetical book listing important terms or names for the subject or specific activities along with discussion of meanings and applications, and (3) reference books to give one another language equivalent. Kridalaksana (2008: 107) defines a dictionary as (1) a reference book that contains a list of words or a combination of words with information about the various aspects of their meaning and usage in language; usually arranged in alphabetical order (in Greco-Roman tradition according to the Greco-Roman alphabet, then according to the corresponding alphabet; in the Arabic tradition according to the order of the number of consonants);
Chaer (2007) suggests several concepts about dictionaries, among others, those proposed by Pierre Labrousse (1997), a dictionary is a book of words in a language arranged alphabetically followed by definitions or translations in other languages. Keraf (1984) says that a dictionary is a reference book, contains a list of words found in a language, arranged alphabetically accompanied by an explanation of how to use the word. In addition to suggesting what is the definition of a dictionary, Chaer (2007) argues that in an ideal dictionary, information on word truncation, information on the origin of words, information on word usage, standard information on whether or not a word is defined, information on archaic and classical words, information on usage areas word, status information for a word, and various other information.
From some of the definitions put forward by these experts, it can be said that a dictionary is not only a reference book that contains vocabulary and its meaning and usage, it is also a vocabulary documentation tool. This is possible because the dictionary can be a vehicle for recording language as a means of communication for humans who have dynamic and productive characteristics. In addition, language also develops in line with developments in culture, science and technology.
In this connection, the compilation of dictionaries is carried out with various purposes according to their function. It can also be said that the compilation of dictionaries is carried out with a specific purpose proclaimed and determined by the compiler. Based on the purpose of compiling the dictionary, you will get the form of entries or entries that are contained in a dictionary. In other words, it can be said that the purpose of compiling the dictionary will determine the vocabulary and entries that will be contained. In addition, the size of the dictionary and the number of entries or entries contained in the dictionary are also influenced by the purpose for which the dictionary is compiled. If the goal has been determined, the dictionary maker can collect entry data that will be included in his work with certain criteria. The dictionary compiler will look for data from a variety of sources that are reliable and accountable. In that case,
3. The Role of Mass Media
As a vocabulary documentary, a dictionary or dictionary compiler requires data sources, both spoken and written. Pekamus can use written data if the language-speaking community (the dictionary to be compiled) has a variety of writing. The written data can be taken from printed mass media, such as newspapers, magazines, or in the form of other printed publications, such as communication sheets or other leaflets.
In the world of literature, it can be said that the mass media also plays a role in providing data or as a data source. This is inseparable from the nature of language which is always developing. With one of the characteristics of language that is always developing, and does not rule out the mutual influence between one language and another. This mutual influence is possible to meet the linguistic needs of the language-speaking community. This can be exemplified as follows.
As a developing language, Indonesian is influenced by other languages, both foreign and regional languages. The influence in the world of language occurs because of the need for the language community for vocabulary that can be used as a mention of a symbol. The language-speaking community will use foreign languages or regional languages, for example when they do not find the right Indonesian vocabulary to express their ideas or ideas. Gradually, but surely, languages originating from foreign languages or regional languages will become widespread and will enrich Indonesian.
The spread of vocabulary that comes from a foreign language or regional language will certainly involve various kinds of mass media, both print and electronic. The spread involved media actors, one of which was journalists. This can happen when journalists or journalists make news or convey information using this vocabulary so that directly and indirectly the journalists and their mass media have provided data for the pekamus for their dictionary compilation. Data in the form of vocabulary can be said to be raw data. This means that in order to be used correctly, both from a linguistic and non-linguistic perspective, it still needs to be processed.
Data processing involves the role of the pekamus. The pekamus will record and collect new vocabulary that appears and spreads through the mass media. The collected data will be documented or included in a dictionary which will be compiled with various provisions adapted to the purpose of compiling the dictionary. One of the general provisions that are still valid today is that a vocabulary will be included in the entry into the dictionary if it is included in three different mass media publications, for example because of different regions and publishers. In addition, the pekamus certainly does not simply enter the new vocabulary into his dictionary entry, but will adapt it to the rules or linguistic rules that apply in Indonesian, for example word writing rules, pronunciation, morphology,
New vocabulary derived from foreign languages or regional languages in Indonesian is not only limited to general vocabulary, but can also be in the form of terms. In that case, the vocabulary is used to meet the needs of the language community in a particular scientific field. This needs attention because as stated by Asmadi (2008) world developments in various fields, such as technology, literature, economics and culture force journalists to harmonize their language. Furthermore, Asmadi revealed that sometimes the emergence of new vocabulary from abroad is not accommodated in the Indonesian language treasury so that the vocabulary that appears in the mass media is only a simplification or adjustment to the journalists’ understanding. This statement, of course, is not without reason. The dictionary as a vehicle for documenting vocabulary is always running late when compared to developments in science and technology. This is possible because the new dictionary can document new vocabulary after the vocabulary is spread.
In this connection, new vocabulary or a term appears and is introduced by certain fields of knowledge to fulfill one of the characteristics of language which is always developing. The spread of knowledge cannot be achieved properly if the language of knowledge is not recognized by the language community. Therefore, experts in various scientific fields will try to introduce their ideas or ideas through language that can be understood by the user community so that the spread of knowledge can be achieved. Thus, this knowledge will be of benefit to the community.
The existence and distribution of the vocabulary in the form of the term cannot be separated from the role of the mass media. The term can be widely spread and recognized by the public through the mass media. For example, terms used in the field of informatics which progress very quickly can be easily recognized and used by the language community through the mass media. The word download and upload , for example, spread so quickly with the Indonesian language terms download ( download ) and upload ( upload ) , as well as discoveries in other fields, such as the construction of the foundation construction of the chicken claw technique.and the foundation of the flyover known as the s o sr o shoulder technique . In the field of education, for example, there are known words character building or character building which is the equivalent of the word character building . The vocabulary is spread and accepted by the public because of the mass media as information that can be said to be always up to date.
New vocabulary or terms will not be known by the language-speaking community if they are not spread and are not used by language speakers. The spread and acceptability of a new vocabulary is much determined and influenced by how much the vocabulary appears and is used as productive vocabulary by the language-speaking community. The language-speaking community can get to know the vocabulary through the mass media, both print and electronic. In that case, the mass media acts as a spreader for new vocabulary that emerges as language development.
The vocabulary that appears will then be recorded, documented, and processed by the composer of the dictionary so that it can become a reference book. Based on the appearance of the vocabulary used in the mass media, the mass media, through their media actors (journalists or journalists), acts as a data provider for law enforcement. Thus, it can be said that the mass media has a big role in the literature. In that case, for the world of dictionaries, mass media, both print and electronic, have a dual role, namely as a data provider and marketer of the results of dictionaries. Mass media and literature have a reciprocal relationship.