Food Safety Management Systems – Introduction to ISO 22000

ISO 22000 specifies the requirements for a food safety management system, for organizations in the food supply chain, who wish to demonstrate their ability to provide safe products to the final consumer.


The objective of ISO 22000 is to harmonize the requirements necessary to provide the final consumer with a safe food. The standard focuses on the management of a system that guarantees the consumer that the food is safe at the time of consumption.

It applies to all phases of the food chain ( eg , primary production, feed, food industry, transport, storage and distribution, trade) and to other organizations that are not directly linked to the food chain ( eg , equipment suppliers, food products, cleaning and sanitizing, packaging materials or other materials that come into contact with food, service providers). This possibility of application to the entire chain is directly related to the final consumer-centered approach and to the explicit objective of ISO 22000 to harmonize, globally, the requirements for the management of food safety for all operators in the food chain.

Theme Background

The International Organization for Standadization (ISO) published, on September 1, 2005, ISO 22000, being an international standard that finally harmonizes the state of the art in an area as important as that of Food Security: ISO 22000: 2005 – Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain .

The implementation of this standard allows the definition of a Food Safety Management System, according to the HACCP Methodology (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), for organizations in the food supply chain, who wish to demonstrate their ability to control hazards and provide safe products, allowing certification by an independent third party. It also makes it possible to comply with the legal requirements, namely Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004, of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 29 April 2004 (mandatory from 1 January 2006), highlighting the definition of objectives to be achieved in the field of food safety,

This norm is thus applied in primary production (agriculture, livestock, fishing), in all phases of intermediate transformation, in logistics and wholesale or retail services, in hotels and restaurants; as well as to all organizations whose activities interrelate with those, such as the production of equipment for the food industry, packaging material, hygiene products, cleaning, pest control and others, and additives and ingredients for incorporation into food.

Integration with other Management Systems and Advantages

It is possible to integrate the Food Safety Management System with other Management Systems, namely with the Quality Management System (ISO 9001: 2000).

The implementation of a Food Safety Management System has several advantages :

  • Comply with the legislation, namely Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004;
    • Enable a greater identification of the potential risks that may occur in the different stages of preparation and preparation of food, allowing the definition of ways to prevent and control these risks;
    • Avoid the appearance of public health problems such as food poisoning, where the direct costs (compensation, hospital expenses) and indirect costs (loss of credibility) can be high;
    • Allow greater identification and distribution of internal responsibilities, thus allowing each employee to become more aware of their importance and function in the organization;
    • It allows training courses more focused on the area of ​​hygiene and food security;
    • Define an effective supplier assessment system, thus avoiding the introduction of “non-compliant” or “doubtful” products in the production cycle;
    • Allow to identify some weaknesses of the company, being able to prevent occurrences of problems;
    • Allow to increase customer satisfaction.

ISO 22000: 2005 Standard Requirements

    4.1 General requirements; 4.2 Documentation requirements
    5.1 Management commitment;
    5.2 Food security policy;
    5.3 Planning the food safety management system;
    5.4 Responsibility and authority;
    5.5 Responsible for the food security team;
    5.6 Communication;
    5.7 Emergency preparedness and response;
    5.8 Management review
    6.1 Provision of resources;
    6.2 Human Resources;
    6.3 Infrastructure;
    6.4 Work environment
    7.1 General;
    7.2 Prerequisite programs (PPRs);
    7.3 Preliminary steps to the hazard analysis;
    7.4 Hazard analysis;
    7.5 Establishment of operational prerequisite programs (operational PPRs);
    7.6 HACCP plan;
    7.7 Update of preliminary information and documents specifying the PPRs and the HACCP plan;
    7.8 Planning the verification;
    7.9 Traceability system;
    7.10 Control of non-compliance
    8.1 General;
    8.2 Validation of combinations of control measures;
    8.3 Monitoring and measurement control;
    8.4 Verification of the food safety management system;
    8.5 Improvement.


Introduction to the Study of ISO 22000: 2005

The interactive communication is a key element and introduces the requirements for external communication between the organization and other parts from suppliers to customers going through the statutory and regulatory authorities, among others, in order to ensure the safety of products to the final consumer, through the identification and control of all relevant hazards in each link of the food chain.

Within the scope of subcontracting competences and control, throughout the standard, several situations are identified in which organizations may resort to external entities. They refer as an example, the use of external know-how for the implementation of this standard and for the development of control measures. The requirements to be implemented in these situations are defined.

It is explicit, in this standard, that the objective is the implementation in organizations of any size (allowing adaptability to small and medium-sized companies), being possible, as previously mentioned, to resort to subcontracting skills that the organization does not have.

Although not an explicit requirement of the ISO 22000 standard, the adoption of the process approach will facilitate the relationship with the ISO 9001 quality management standard and allows systematic control of the relationship between individual processes within the process system, and the their combination and interaction.

Going against the current European legislation in force, ISO 22000 introduces the need for organizations to define a system that allows them to identify the raw materials and subsidiaries used in the production of a given batch and the initial route of product distribution to the customer, thus ensuring mode, the traceability system .

By the traditional approach, control measures were grouped into prerequisites and control measures applied to critical control points (PCC’s). ISO 22000 introduces a new characterization of control measures (three groups):

  • PPRs, as the set of control measures necessary to ensure a hygienic production, handling and environment, not having the objective of controlling specific hazards;
  • Operational PPRs – as a set of control measures that the hazard analysis considers necessary to control identified hazards that are not managed by the HACCP plan.
  • HACCP plan – as a set of control measures that the hazard analysis considers necessary to control identified hazards. These control measures are applied in the CCP.

The validation of control measures and / or their combinations , which are essential for food safety, is introduced, with the aim of ensuring the intended control of hazards and their effectiveness.


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