The study of issue of meaning and its manifestation in language is normally referred to as Semantic In Linguistics. The term semantics as ‘relating to signification or meaning’/Broadly speaking, semantics is that aspect of ’ linguistics which deals with the relations between referents (names) and referents (things. that is, known as five linguistic levels and the objects-or concepts or-ideas to which they refer—and with the history and changes in the meaning of words,) Diachronic semantics which is also called historical linguistics studies semantic change over time scientifically we can say its shift and change of language across time.
Synchronic semantics deals semantic relationship, which limited to the particular fixed time. This study finds the intrinsic variations of words in a fixed time.
A semanticist would like to find how people is able to understand the surface and deep structures meaning, how they can manipulate the true meaning with their own perception.
We can see A semantic analysis, of English language will have broad research because linguist has to explain role of synuomys, atnoyms, style of words, and expression of sentences with details. Because for linguistic context is more important.
it should give an account of semantic properties and relations. Hence to understand the meaning of a sentence and its semantic relations to other expressions, one must know not only the meaning of its lexical elements but also how they inter-relate.
We can say, semantic theory must:
(a) Make reference to the syntactic structure in a precise way;
(b) Systematically represent the meaning of the single words;
(c) Show how the structure of the meaning of words and the syntactic relations interact, in order to constitute the interpretation of sentences; and
(d) It must indicate how the interpretations are related to the things spoken about.
Importance of study Semantics In Linguistics
Although the structuralists tried to study language without meaning, the importance of meaning has been recognized since time immemorial. Were the words eternal, one word would have meant one and the same thing in all the languages, there would have been no semantic change, and men would not have felt any necessity of learning words? Nevertheless, some western scholars too have started talking about semantic universals now-a-days, and today, there is a wide agreement than it ever was that meaning is the soul of languags
DIFFICULTIES IN THE STUDY OF MEANING
Many linguist claims that it is difficult to understand the true meaning of word. Signaling and abstract system are involved in terms of meaning. They further explained when we study the language we study the semantic system not the structure of whole language.
Scholars have long puzzled over what words mean of what they represent, or how they relate to reality. They have at times wondered whether words are more real than objects, It is impossible to describe meaning adequately in any other way except by saying how words are typically used as part of longer sentences and how these sentences are used The meanings of sentences and their components are better dealt with in linguistics in terms of how they function than exclusively in terms of what they refer to.
When we talk about meaning, we are talking about the ability of human beings to understand one another when they speak. This ability is to some extent connected with grammar. No one could understand:
Hat one the but red green on bought tried Mehmood
Mehmood tried on the red hat but bought the green one causes no difficulties.
Yet there numerous sentences which are perfectly grammatical, but meaningless. The most famous example is the sentence which was developed by Chomsky as semantically nonsense.
“Colorless green ideas sleep furiously”.
Similar other examples are:
Friday is Sunday fight.
Bed of throne is bed of roses
In a sentence such as do you consider the fundamentals of linguistics? A linguist has to take lexical meaning and grammatical meanings. Full words have some kind of intrinsic meaning. They denotes to many objects, actions and qualities that can be identified in the Grammatical meaning, such as fan, Mango, night, eat, yellow/such words are known as lexical meaning.
Whereas Empty words have little meaning. They only exist for to express grammatical function in the sentence. For example and is used to join the items or indicates alternatives of sometimes indicate possession. These words have grammatical meaning. Grammatical meaning refers mainly to the meaning of grammatical items as did, whished. Grammatical meaning may also cover notions such as subject, predicate object, and sentence types as interrogative, imperative, expressive etc. As yet, no theory of semantics has been able to cope with it adequately. But the study of lexical items is more manageable.