Our daily lives can never be separated from chemicals. The air we breathe is one of the chemical definitions of the elements , the food we eat contains a number of certain chemicals, the soap we use for bathing, even the fuel that drives our motorized vehicles. Everything contains chemicals.
In addition to the myriad benefits that we can get from the presence of these chemicals, it turns out there are also many chemicals that must be used carefully because they have toxic (toxic), dangerous, explosive, and flammable properties. In simple terms, hazardous chemicals are substances that are harmful to humans, wildlife and the environment at every stage of their life cycle, from production to use, to disposal.
table of contents
- Toxic, Dangerous, Exploded and Burned Chemicals
- Examples of Chemicals
- Hydrogen Cyanide
- Hydrogen Sulfide
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Ethile Oxide
- Ethyl Ether
- Gasoline (Gasolin)
- Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
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- Examples of Chemicals
Toxic, Dangerous, Exploded and Burned Chemicals
Chemicals are pure substances or mixtures composed of various chemical elements. For example, water is a pure chemical because it is homogeneous or consists of only one type of material, that is, the entire structure contains only H 2 O molecules .
In addition to chemicals that are beneficial for humans to meet their various needs, there are also many chemicals that are actually dangerous.
This is the reason why usually in every chemical packaging there is a level of danger and how to handle it, before using these materials we should understand how to treat these materials.
Examples of Chemicals
Examples in the symbol of toxic, dangerous, explosive, and flammable chemicals include:
- Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen cyanide, sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound that is a colorless, highly toxic and flammable liquid that boils slightly above room temperature, at 25.6 ° C (78.1 ° F).
Hydrogen cyanide is used commercially for fumigation, power coating, mining, chemical synthesis, and production of synthetic fibers, plastics, dyes, and pesticides.
This has an entire body (systemic) effect, especially affecting the organ systems that are most sensitive to low oxygen levels: the central nervous system (brain), cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), and the lung system (lungs).
- Hydrogen Sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable and colorless gas that smells like rotten eggs. People can usually smell hydrogen sulfide at low concentrations in the air, ranging from 0,0005 to 0.3 parts per million (ppm) (0,0005-0.3 parts of hydrogen sulfide in 1 million parts of air).
At high concentrations, a person may lose the ability to smell it. This is because one might mistakenly think that hydrogen sulfide no longer exists; this can increase the risk of their exposure to air levels which can cause serious health effects.
Hydrogen sulfide occurs both naturally and from man-made processes. It is in gas from volcanoes, sulfur springs, underwater vents, swamps, and puddles and in crude oil and natural gas.
- Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is an inorganic peroxide which consists of two hydroxy groups which combine with a single bond of covalent oxygen-oxygen. It is used as a whitening and antiseptic agent. Usually to whiten our hair and teeth, but in factories it is used to whiten paper, sterilize machines, and produce printed circuit boards.
Hydrogen peroxide is corrosive so it can cause irreversible eye damage; caustic burns to the throat and nose lungs; and blisters, bleeding and damage to the respiratory tract and stomach.
Ricin, a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a very powerful poison. A dose of pure ricin powder the size of a few grains of table salt can kill adult humans.
The median lethal dose (LD50) of ricin is about 22 micrograms per kilogram of body weight if the exposure is from injection or inhalation (2 milligrams for the average adult). Oral exposure to ricin is much less toxic because some poisons are not active in the stomach. It is estimated that the lethal oral dose in humans is around 1 milligram per kilogram.
Arsenic is a metalloid – a natural element that is actually not metal but which has some metal properties. This is a natural component of the earth’s crust, commonly found in all rocks, soil, water and air. However, concentrations may be higher in certain areas due to natural conditions or human activities.
Mining, metal smelting, and burning fossil fuels are the main industrial processes that contribute to arsenic contamination of air, water and soil. The use of arsenic-containing pesticides in the past has caused large agricultural areas to be contaminated. The use of arsenic in preserving wood also causes environmental pollution.
Mercury is an example of chemical elements a naturally occurring found in rocks in the earth’s crust, including in coal deposits. On the periodic table, it has the symbol “Hg” and its atomic number is 80.
There are in some forms of elements (metals) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and methylmercury and other organic compounds. Mercury is used in old thermometers, fluorescent light bulbs and several electric switches.
Exposure to mercury – even in small amounts – can cause serious health problems, and is a threat to the development of the child in the womb and early in life. Mercury can have toxic effects on the nervous system, digestion and immunity, and on the lungs, kidneys, skin and eyes.
Formaldehyde is a colorless and strong-smelling gas used in the manufacture of building materials and many household products. This is used in compressed wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glue and adhesive; permanent press fabric; paper product coatings; and certain insulation materials. It is also used to make other chemicals.
Given its extensive use, toxicity, and volatility, formaldehyde poses a significant hazard to human health. In 2011, the US National Toxicology Program described formaldehyde as “known as a human carcinogen”.
Halogens are groups in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatin (At). The name “halogen” means “salt producer”. Halogens tend to decrease toxicity to heavier halogens.
For example chlorine gas is very toxic. Inhaling chlorine at a concentration of 3 parts per million can quickly cause toxic reactions. Inhaling chlorine at a concentration of 50 ppm is very dangerous. Inhaling chlorine at a concentration of 500 parts per million for several minutes is deadly.
Meanwhile, Bromine is somewhat toxic, but less toxic than fluorine and chlorine. 100 milligrams of bromine is very deadly. Bromide anions are also poisonous, but not so bromine. Bromide has 30 grams of lethal.
Acrilonitrile is nitrile which is hydrogen cyanide where hydrogen has been replaced by ethenyl groups. It has a role as a carcinogenic agent, antifungal agent, fungal metabolite, polar aprotic solvent and mutagen. These are aliphatic nitriles and volatile organic compounds.
However, the potential dangers posed if exposed to this one chemical that can be fatal if inhaled, absorbed through the skin or swallowed; Steam irritates the eyes and respiratory tract; High vapor concentration can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and confusion.
More severe exposures can cause bluish discoloration of the skin, collapse and death; Causes severe skin and eye irritation; Potential cancer dangers – causes cancer based on animal information.
- Ethile Oxide
Ethylene oxide is a flammable gas with a rather sweet odor. Easily soluble in water. Ethylene oxide is a man-made chemical that is used primarily to make ethylene glycol (a chemical used to make antifreeze and polyester).
A small amount (less than 1%) is used to control insects in some stored agricultural products and a small amount is used in hospitals to sterilize medical equipment and supplies.
However, excessive amounts can be dangerous, which can be fatal if inhaled; irritate respiratory tract; Central nervous system depression. High concentrations can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and can cause cancer.
Chromium is a metal transition steel, gray, shiny, hard and brittle. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, which adds anti-corrosive properties, so that its main use is in alloys such as stainless steel, in plating chrome and metal ceramics.
People can be exposed to chromium through breathing, eating or drinking and through skin contact with chromium compounds. Some of the dangers that arise include skin rashes; stomach ache, boils; respiratory problems; weakened immune system; kidney and liver damage; changes in genetic material; lung cancer.
Asbestos is a natural material that is resistant to exposure to fire, sound, water, and chemicals. It consists of millions of fibers, which tie together to make a lightweight but almost indestructible material.
Asbestos is mined from natural deposits throughout the world. After being removed from the ground, it is processed and developed into industrial materials. Asbestos deposits naturally can be found in countries like the United States, China, Russia, and South America.
The most common way for asbestos fibers to enter the body is through breathing. In fact, materials containing asbestos are generally not considered dangerous unless they release dust or fiber into the air where they can be inhaled or digested.
- Ethyl Ether
Ethyl ether, also called diethyl ether, a well-known anesthetic, commonly called simple ether, an organic compound that belongs to a large group of compounds called ether. Ethyl ether is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid (boiling point 34.5 ° C [94.1 ° F]) with a strong and distinctive aroma and a hot and sweet taste.
This is a solvent that is widely used for bromine, iodine, most fatty substances and resins, essential oils, pure rubber, and certain vegetable alkaloids. This is a flammable and colorless liquid. This is commonly used as a solvent in the laboratory and as a starting liquid for some machines.
- Gasoline (Gasolin)
Gasoline or gasoline is a mixture of volatile liquid hydrocarbons that comes from petroleum and is used as fuel for internal combustion engines.
Gasoline is a dangerous substance because it is very flammable and harmful to our health, potentially causing damage to the skin and eyes, as well as dizziness, respiratory problems, lung damage and cancer. Handling and storing gasoline safely is very important.
It must be clearly marked as a flammable liquid and stored in a cool, well-ventilated place in a specially designed container. Vapors from gasoline can quickly cause a fire or explosion so the area of expenditure must be strictly designated as SMOKING and away from heat and other sources of ignition.
Ammonia is an azana consisting of a single nitrogen atom that is covalently bonded to three hydrogen atoms. Ammonia is one of the most commonly used industrial and cleaning chemicals in the world.
It is also highly flammable, corrosive and toxic to our human body. Exposure to ammonia causes burning directly to the eyes, nose and throat. This can cause blindness, lung damage and death.
Acetone is a methyl ketone consisting of propane containing an oxo group in C2. It has a role as a polar aprotic solvent, human metabolite and EC 220.127.116.11 inhibitor (amidase). Acetone is used as the main ingredient in nail polish removers, paint thinners, enamels, and resins.
Acetone is a highly flammable hazardous substance which must be used and stored away from heat, sparks, flames and static electricity. It must also be kept away from flammable gases and oxidizers.
Acetone is an irritant to our skin and eyes. Steam swallowed by the body can cause headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, blurred vision, and fatigue while long-term exposure can cause liver and organ damage.
Benzene is a six carbon aromatic annulene in which each carbon atom contributes one of its two 2p electrons to the delocalized pi system. This is a toxic liquid by-product that is flammable from coal distillation, used as an industrial solvent.
Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages the bone marrow and central nervous system. It has a role as a non-polar solvent, a carcinogenic agent and environmental contaminants. This is an aromatic annulene, a volatile organic compound and benzene member.
Cadmium in its elemental form is a soft, silver-white metal. Usually not present in the environment as pure metal, but most often as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores.
Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining zinc and, to a lesser extent, as a by-product of tin and copper production.
Cadmium is not an element used by the body, because it is poisonous, mainly affecting the kidneys and bones. It is also a carcinogen if inhaled. Cadmium can accumulate in the liver, kidneys and bones, which can function as a source of exposure in the future. In the environment, cadmium is poisonous to plants, animals and microorganisms.
Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerin, trinitroglycerin (TNG), nitro, glycerol trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a solid, colorless, oily, explosive material most commonly produced by nitric glycerol with nitric acid. smoky white in conditions suitable for the formation of nitric acid esters.
Invented in 1847, nitroglycerin has been used as an active ingredient in the manufacture of explosives, mostly dynamite, and is therefore used in the construction, demolition, and mining industries. Since the 1880s, it has been used by the military as an active ingredient, and gelatinizer for nitrocellulose, in some solid propellants, such as cordite and ballistite.
- Trinitrotoluene ( TNT )
TNT is a yellow solid and was first produced as a dye in 1863. It did not explode spontaneously and was very easy and comfortable to handle, so its explosive nature was only discovered about 30 years later by German chemist Carl Häussermann in 1891.
TNT can even be thawed and poured into vessels, but it will explode with the help of a detonator – and with great force, because the nitro groups in the molecule quickly turn into nitrogen gas.
This makes it ideal for use in controlled demolition, where explosives can be planted and detonated when planned (for example by miners), making them relatively “safe” explosives. It is also used as a “standard measure” for bombs, so the “explosion” of other chemicals is often measured relative to TNT.
Well, that was a series of articles that we have written in full to all readers related to various examples of chemicals that are poisonous, dangerous, explosive, and flammable. Hopefully, through this material can provide insight and increase knowledge for all readers. Thanks,