Essay on agriculture – essay on agriculture in hindi: 1
Agriculture mainly means growing crops and animal husbandry. Although in today’s time, farming is considered limited to the production of crops, but it is a much larger area which includes animal husbandry, milk production etc.
History of farming in India:
Before the discovery of agriculture, man wandered in various places in search of food but when he started farming, he did not have to wander for food and it made possible to build society and civilization in one place. Cultivation is believed to have started in West Asia where our ancestors started growing wheat and barley as well as raising animals like bhed, goat, cow and buffalo.
It is believed that humans started farming in 7500 B.C. and 3000 B.C. was the time when agriculture expanded rapidly to Egypt and then to Indus civilization and in this civilization the center of agricultural expansion from Mohenjodaro to Harappa region. is believed.
The importance of agriculture increased during the Vedic period and at the same time modern tools of iron were also used in it and after this, trees were given importance in Buddha’s time, which gave a boost to agriculture. After this, the technique of irrigation was discovered which enabled more people to agriculture because it was no longer necessary to live on the banks of the river for agriculture. In this period, crops like rice and sugarcane etc. were sown.
After this, commercial distances like cotton and indigo began to be grown in the British era, which led to a major change in agriculture. Now people started farming for food as well as profit. These commercial crops started being used as British raw materials and sold in European countries. In India, instead of food crops, the emphasis was on growing commercial crops, which led to a food crisis in India at the time of independence.
However, soon there was a Green Revolution in India, due to which it became self-sufficient in terms of food grains as well as it started exporting to other countries.
Today, although countries are growing at a rapid pace, there is still widespread poverty in many developing countries, which still remains a food crisis. Although new technologies are coming up every day in the agricultural sector, but due to pollution, the land is being degraded and it is becoming less fertile.
Land pollution is increasing very fast and millions of farmers and people living in rural areas are getting affected every year. Food grains are being grown in 73 percent of the total cultivable land in the world but it is only able to meet 74 percent of the people’s needs, so we need to find advanced and non-polluting technologies is.
70 percent of the total population of India still depends on agriculture and with the deteriorating conditions, farmers are going below the poverty line. Presently India’s public population is 135 crores which is expected to be 150 crores by the middle of this century.
With increasing public interest, agriculture will also have to progress to meet its food demand. For this, humans will have to use techniques that do not pollute the environment while being better so that the land remains fertile and gives higher yields, otherwise India may face a food crisis in the near future.
Importance of Agriculture in Indian Economy:
Agriculture has been important in India since ancient times . Here raw material is obtained from agriculture for all main industries like cotton, sugarcane etc. Apart from this, many other industries indirectly depend on agriculture such as rice mills, oil mills etc. which require raw materials.
However, in spite of increasing industrialization, the employment in agriculture sector is not decreasing, there are new opportunities. As more advanced technologies come, there are possibilities of more opportunities.
Role of agriculture in the field of international trade:
India mainly exports spices, oilseeds, tobacco and tea etc. in the world. About 50 percent of the total products exported by India are agricultural related.
Although the economy is benefited by the products exported from India, but sometimes due to some reasons such as excessive taxes etc. have to be lost. Although taxes are not the same in all countries but are higher in developed countries. This happens because they do not want to increase competition in this area and promote the industries of their country, which makes the exported products expensive there.
Role of Agriculture in Economic Planning:
Other industries are also connected to the agricultural industry. For example, the Transport Department is an important part of the Department of Agriculture because transportation plays a role in moving agricultural produce from one place to another or from one country to another. In this way agriculture also supports other industries.
Therefore, it proves that agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy and if India is to succeed as an economy, agriculture will have to be upgraded only then the Indian economy will prosper.
Essay on agriculture – essay on agriculture in hindi: 2
Agriculture is an area which employs the most people in India. The meaning of agriculture is not limited to farming only, but it also includes animal husbandry. Agriculture plays an important role for India’s economy and also in other industries.
Extension of agricultural sector:
India is a country whose 70 percent population is dependent on agriculture. The development of agricultural sector is the most important for the development of India and the government is making a lot of efforts for it. This region is rapidly expanding and developing.
Although it was not very advanced in India a few decades ago and was cultivated using ancient tools, but after the Green Revolution and globalization, advanced technology has come along and high yielding varieties have been invented which has led to the agricultural sector There has been a lot of prosperity in it.
Earlier India was not able to produce enough to satisfy its population and it had to be imported from other countries. This was because agriculture mainly depended on the monsoon. But since the Green Revolution, not only did it produce enough food for its people, but now it has also been able to export food grains.
After independence, the government decided to make several important changes in this area. Dams were built for irrigation and schemes were started for the farmers. Dams were built, hand pumps were installed, fertilizer was provided, etc. However, the agricultural sector still needs to grow.
In the Green Revolution, high yielding varieties were invented as well as new irrigation techniques were used so that rain does not have to depend on them. With time, now farmers do not worry about rain and even if there is no rain, the crops get adequate water and yield better.
Negative impact on agricultural environment:
Agriculture has helped the human beings in the development of civilization in ancient times, but in today’s new era when dangerous chemicals are being used for higher yields, it is causing many negative effects on the environment which are as follows:
- The use of fertilizer causes soil contamination, which makes it less fertile and at the same time these chemicals go into the human body and also have side effects in it.
- With increasing population, more deforestation is being done to make room to meet the need for more food, which is negatively impacting the environment.
- Excessive use of river water is threatening the life of animals living in the river as the water is getting depleted.
In this way agriculture has also affected the environment in these negative ways and we have to find ways to eliminate these effects soon.
Although agriculture is very important for the economy in our country, but we also have to take care of our environment. Therefore, to reduce or eliminate all the negative effects due to agriculture, new advanced technologies have to be discovered so that our environment can be saved and at the same time the demand of growing population can be met.