This Research Article has been supervised by Nutritionist/Food Expert Anum Nazir).She is Lecturer in School of Nutritional sciences At University of Faisalabad).
Researcher And Writer
Supervised By Anum Nazir
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University Of Faisalabad,Pakistan
Topic;EFFECT OF EXTRA-VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ON HYPERLIPIDEMIA
Hyperlipidemia is the abnormal increase in the lipid profile of an individual with a massive reduction in the HDL levels in the body. At present, the leading causes of the death include the CVDs and CAD like conditions. EVOO is produced by the cold pressing of the fresh olive fruit. EVOO is packed with monounsaturated fatty acids and potent anti-oxidants which help in protecting LDL from oxidation, increasing HDL level resulting in managing the dyslipidemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in the body. EVOO possessed the anti-inflammatory components along with the vasodilator chemicals which protects from the atherosclerotic condition and can be helpful to resolve this condition too. EVOO also contains the powerful phenolic compounds which protects against the serum and plasma lipid oxidation. EVOO shows the favorable results against the diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, metabolic syndrome by managing the lipid profile and increasing the good cholesterol in the body. Consumption of EVOO shows the plausible results when its activity is compared and studied in detail with the different factors, conditions, PUFA rich sources, hypolipidemic drugs, omega 3 sources like fish oil from the previously careful researched studies and is discussed further in detail for the careful administration in the daily diet.
Hyperlipidemia is a condition in which there is a massive increase in the either of the plasma lipids or their combinations including cholesterol, plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL), phospholipids, cholesterol esters, triglycerides with the reduction in the HDL. These elevated levels lead towards the risk factors of the cardiovascular diseases which further leads towards the further complications causing severe side effects on the muscles and liver of the individual. Hyperlipidemia increases the oxidative stress producing free radicals which leads to the oxidation of the LDL’s leading to the complications like coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction1 (Ghassan F. Shattat, 2014).
The leading cause of deaths nowadays is the CAD and other CVDs if compared with the other conditions worldwide. Elevation in the levels of the serum cholesterol leads to the atherosclerosis which tends to the heart conditions like CHD due to which the researchers and biochemists around the world keep emphasizing on the production, evaluation and discovery of the hypolipidemic agents to prevent and control the hyperlipidemic conditions and further complications2 (Jain et al., 2007).
Extra-virgin olive oil is synthesized by crushing the fresh olive fruits and extracting its juice without any industrial refining and chemical treatment but just with the carefully monitored temperature with mechanical means and that’s the reason of its expensiveness with bunch of nutrients packed in it. The pungent, fruity, bitter taste and smell is the sign of its pureness3. Extra-virgin olive oil consumption is becoming vital in our daily life which is also being approved by the various research works as that illustrates its importance against the different diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, metabolic syndrome. EVOO is also known as super food due to its composition as its 100 grams include 13.8% saturated fat, 73% of monounsaturated fat (most of it is 18 carbon long oleic acid), 9.7% of omega-6, 0.76% of omega-3, 72% RDA of vitamin E, 75% RDA of vitamin-K and is loaded with lots of anti-oxidants. EVOO contains anti-inflammatory substances like oleic acid, oleocanthal (an anti-oxidant) which shows the effects like ibuprofen which is an anti-inflammatory drug. EVOO helps in the protection of LDL from oxidative damage, improves endothelial function, blood clotting, lowering blood pressure4 (Gunnars, 2017).
Another study shows the association of the consumption of EVOO with the hypolipidemic effects on the liver in the rat and for that hepatocytes were extracted by the collagenase perfusion from the rat liver which shows the reduction in the lipid synthesis of the hepatocytes showing the hypolipidemic effects which is the result of the phenols present in the EVOO5 (Priore et al., 2015).
In another study of efficacy of EVOO in modulating atherosclerosis‐ development, the asymptomatic high cardiovascular risk subjects, those with carotid intima media thickness greater than 0.9 mm showed a significant decrease when they consumed a diet enriched with VOO for one year and also reduction in the oxidative damage of LDL6 (Arnal et al., 2012.)
Another study for evaluation that whether the phenolic content of olive oil further benefits plasma lipid levels and lipid oxidative damage compared with monounsaturated acid content which shows a linear increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels for low, medium, and high-polyphenol olive oil7 (Covas et al., 2006).
The main objective of this research is to determine the benefits of EVOO regarding to the hyperlipidemia in the individuals by evaluating its effect on the plasma lipid level, increase in HDL level and the protection of LDL from oxidative damage.
There are many immense studies circulating on many journals and websites regarding to the hypolipidemic effects, protection of LDL from oxidation and enhancement in the HDL levels of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and those studies are not just from the biochemistry point of view but also the comparative studies of its effectiveness with either chemicals or other food extracts in different body conditions in which the main focus is on the effective management of the lipid levels in the body to either help in the treatment or managing the present condition to protect from advancing or preventing from the worse effects due to the present risks factors in the individual and some of the studies related to these different aspects are reviewed below:
- EVOO with hypolipidemic drugs
The study for the comparison of effectiveness between EVOO consumption with mostly consumed hypolipidemic drug that’s atorvastatin for the dyslipidemic condition in type 2 diabetic patients which leads towards the micro-vascular diseases shows the almost similar effects of lowering plasma lipids and increasing HDL levels in the subjects and hence was concluded that the
consumption of EVOO is the safest way if compared with the utilization of high doses and long term consumption of hypolipidemic drugs as studied by Stefano et al and Castro et al that these drugs are found to cause liver damage with muscle toxicity8 (Mahmood et al., 2017).
- EVOO–composition to the molecular gastronomy
In this detailed study, the effectiveness via consumption of raw and cooked EVOO is compared carefully which shows that the most effective and valuable way of consuming EVOO is in the raw form because through this the maximum intake of powerful compounds and natural anti-oxidants is being confirmed and shows favorable health results but the consumption of cooked EVOO is also not discouraged because the cooking treatment and temperature don’t completely destroys the beneficial compounds but its proven that through this treatment diverse chemical interactions occurs among the biophenolic compounds which results into the lost of many valuable components of EVOO9 (Sacchi et al., 2013).
- Effect of phenols in the EVOO on the oxidation of the LDL
In this study, the researchers did the detailed study on the susceptibility of the oxidation of the isolated LDL from the plasma of the hyperlipidemic patients in which the individuals were first administered with the olive oil and after sometime switched to the EVOO for the detailed results which shows the noteworthy reduction in the formation of copper induced LDL hydroperoxides with the end products of the lipoperoxidation along with the depletion of the arachidonic and linoleic acid in the LDL with the increase in the plasmic phenols10 (Masella et al., 2001).
- Effect of EVOO on the resistance of serum lipid and oxidation
In this study, the researchers proposed that in Mediterranean areas the prevalence of coronary heart disorders is very low as the consumption of the olive oil is a common practice. So they perform a study on total 26 subjects for 6 weeks with careful monitored administration of EVOO with the aim of finding the EVOO effect on the resistance of the serum lipids and its effect on the oxidation (in-vitro) with the fatty acid composition in the elderly lipidemic individuals which shows the positive results with successful reduction in the LDL and total plasma cholesterol with the changes in the fatty acid composition as they found the increase in the oleic acid and decrease in the arachidonic and linoleic acids showing the protective effects against lipoprotein oxidation11 (Nagyova et al.,2003).
Effects of anti-oxidants of olive oil
In this study the main focus of the researchers was on the beneficial effects of anti-oxidants present in the olive oil that’s the phenolic compounds which shows the effective results by delaying the oxidation of LDL as the olive oil is rich in the phenolic compounds which helps in the binding of LDL in our body and make the tyrosol bioavailable which protects against the oxidation of the lipids12 (Covas et al., 2001).
- Effect of EVOO with the fish oil for metabolic syndrome
This study was done to evaluate the lipid profile along with the oxidative stress in the individuals with the metabolic syndrome against the synergistic effect of EVOO and the fish oil by administrating these omega 3 PUFA’s and phenolic oil to the 3 different treatment groups with one control group to carefully evaluate the difference which shows the result that the increased administration of the omega 3 PUFA’s along with the EVOO shows favorable synergistic effect on the lipid profile and oxidation in the individuals with the metabolic syndrome13 (Venturini et al., 2015).
- Effect on oxidative stress of EVOO in post-prandial state
In this study, the researchers carefully work on the effect of administration of EVOO in contrast with the corn oil on the oxidative stress in the post-prandial state as they implicated that the substantial increase in the oxidation leads to the conditions like atherosclerosis which shows the effective results of EVOO including the reduction in the NOX2 activity along with the reduction in the oxidative stress in PMNs and platelets which concludes that administration of EVOO leads to the protection against oxidative stress in post-prandial state14 (Carnevale et al., 2014).
- Comparative study of olive oil with sesame oil in patients with hypercholestremia
This proportional study was conducted for the comparison of the therapeutic effects of sesame oil with the olive oil on the lipid profile among the individuals with the hypercholestremia which shows the favorable results after careful administration of the olive oil and sesame oil for one month in the two different treatment groups which concludes that the olive oil have more protective effects against lipid oxidation and shows visible increase in the HDL level with the almost correspondent effects on the lipid profile of both oils with the better improvement in the lipid profile with sesame oil of TG along with the LDL-C15 (Kaseb et al., 2013).
- Association between consumption of EVOO on blood glucose level and LDL in the post prandial state
This study was focused on the effect of the EVOO on the lipid cholesterol and glycemic level in the body after 2 hours of taking meal and for this purpose the researchers investigated 25 healthy individuals and in those subjects introduced 10g of EVOO in different groups which shows the approving results. The researchers elaborated the results by saying that they are reporting the improvement in the glycemic level along with LDL-C by the consumption of EVOO for the very first time as they found out that there is marked reduction in the increase in blood glucose with patent increase in the blood insulin level and reduced augmentation in the LDL levels and oxidation was detected16 (Violi et al., 2015).
- Proportional study between the consumption of corn oil and EVOO for their effect on the plasma lipoprotein in hypercholesterolemic individuals
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PUFA rich corn oil and MUFA rich EVOO on the lipid profile of the hypercholesterolemic individuals and for this purpose the researchers carefully administered the corn oil and EVOO with vigilantly monitored low cholesterol and saturated fat diet which shows the plausible results stating that the consumption of corn oil shows visible reduction in the non-HDL-C, total-C and LDL-C when compared with EVOO but the consumption of EVOO shows marked difference in the HDL-C levels as HDL-C is favorably increased by the consumption of EVOO. So this study was being concluded that corn oil shows more effective results as compared to the EVOO against LDL and total cholesterol while EVOO is way more effective for the regulation of the HDL levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects17 (Maki et al., 2015).
- EVOO as an anti-inflammatory to vasodilatory nutrient
In this study the researchers demonstrated that for the very first time cardio-protective properties were being confirmed from the studies conducted in the seven countries and the reason of that is the Mediterranean diet and the representative constituent of this diet is the consumption of EVOO. They further illustrated that the composition of the EVOO contributes to the protection against CVD of which MUFA’s like oleic acid and phenols play the utmost part and these components contribute to the maintenance of the healthy life. So they suggested that the introduction of this heavenly food into the daily diet as the supplement, shows the anti-oxidant, vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effect which leads to the reduction in the atherosclerotic chances among the individuals18 (Nocella et al., 2018).
- The effects of EVOO’s phenolic compounds as anti-inflammatory
This study was done on the human blood cultures to evaluate the different effects of all phenolic compounds of EVOO and their anti-inflammatory responses and for this purpose the anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured from the diluted cultures of the human blood which shows the plausible results that some of the phenols of the EVOO shows the visible reduction in the inflammatory mediators which contributes from the protection of the atherosclerosis19 (Miles et al., 2005).
Consumption of EVOO for the hyperlipidemia has shown the favorable results if administered carefully in a required amount on the daily basis for the required time as its consumption helps in the reduction of the total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, plasma and serum levels of lipid and mostly the oxidation is also reduced with the positive increase in the HDL levels in the body. Although in some comparative studies the reduction in the lipid profile is being observed more effective as in the case of the PUFA’s rich sources like corn oil but still the increase in the HDL levels is seen more effective in the case of EVOO but in some synergetic studies, the consumption of EVOO shows way more better and effective results if taken with the omega 3 PUFA sources like fish oil. So, the consumption of EVOO is highly encouraged to overcome the condition like hyperlipidemia and for the protection from the diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, metabolic syndrome.
- Shattat G. F. A Review Article on Hyperlipidemia: Types, Treatments and New Drug Targets. Biomed Pharmacol J 2014; 7(2).
- Kishor S.JainaK.Kathiravanb Rahul S.Somania Chamanlal J.Shishooc. The biology and chemistry of hyperlipidemia. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Volume 15, Issue 14, 15 July 2007, Pages 4674-4699.
- By Olive Oil Times Staff. Special report on Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Olive oil times, 2015.
- Kris Gunnars. Why Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is the Healthiest Fat on Earth. Healthline, 19 December 2019.
- Priore, P., Caruso, D., Siculella, L. et al. Rapid down-regulation of hepatic lipidmetabolism by phenolic fraction from extra virgin olive oil. Eur J Nutr 54, 823–833
- José M. Lou Bonafonte, Carmen Arnal, María A. Navarro, Jesús Osada. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from extra virgin olive oil to modulate atherosclerosis development. Wiley online library, 04 July 2012, Volume56, Issue7, Special Issue: Nutrition and Atherosclerosis
- Covas M, Nyyssönen K, Poulsen HE, et al, for the EUROLIVE Study Group. The Effect of Polyphenols in Olive Oil on Heart Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 145:333–341.
- Tariq Mahmood Khan, Sohail Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan Rashid. Comparison of lipid lowering effect of extra virgin olive oil and atorvastatin in dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2017; 29(1).
- Sacchi R., Paduano A., Savarese M., Vitaglione P., Fogliano V. (2014) Extra Virgin Olive Oil: From Composition to “Molecular Gastronomy”. In: Zappia V., Panico S., Russo G., Budillon A., Della Ragione F. (eds) Advances in Nutrition and Cancer. Cancer Treatment and Research, vol 159. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
- Roberta Masella, Claudio Giovannini, Rosaria Varì, Roberta Di Benedetto, Ettore Coni, Roberto Volpe, Nadia Fraone, Antonello Bucci. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil phenols on low density lipoprotein oxidation in hyperlipidemic patients. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume36, Issue11, November 2001, Pages 1195-1202.