This Research Article has been supervised by Nutritionist/Food Expert Anum Nazir).She is Lecturer in School of Nutritional sciences At University of Faisalabad).
Researcher And Writer
Supervised By Anum Nazir
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University Of Faisalabad,Pakistan.
Topic;EFFECT OF CHIA SEED AND CHIA OIL ON PLASMA LIPID
Coronary heart illness (CHD) is the foremost common cause of passing within the western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 passing’s annually. The daily consumption of omega-3 fatty acids prevent from the heart diseases. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of chia seed on plasma lipid level. Total cholesterol level lower by the chia seed as compared to the chia oil. Chia diets significantly decreased triacylglycerol levels and increased HDL cholesterol and omega-3 fatty acid contents this all proved by a research that was conducted on rats. Analysis shows it known as the top most vegetative source of alpha linolenic fatty acid. The utilization of insoluble fiber that abundantly present in chia seed moreover expanded (P <0.05) the fecal bulk and dampness. The checked cholesterol and lipid lowering impact of insoluble fiber may be somewhat ascribed to its capacity to improve the excretion of lipids and bile acids by means of feces.
Chia seed are plant based species have higher beneficial effect (Ayerza R, Coates W, 2005) These seed are part of lamiaceae family plant that name is herbaceous (M.R. Sandoval et al., 2013). The component of chia seed changes in different conditions like climate, place of cultivation and soil (Ayerza R, Coates W, 2009).
Chia seed contain high content of protein (15-25%), dietary fiber (18-30%) , lipid (30-33%) and polyphenols (Ixtaina et al ., 2008 ). It also contain triglycerides, fatty acids such as omega-3 alphalinolenic acid (40%) and omega-6 linoleic acid (20%) (Mohd Ali et
al., 2012). It contains 7% soluble and 55.9 insoluble fiber on dry basis (Weber CW et al., 1999). Chia seed have no toxic effect of heavy metals that present in seeds (Peiretti and Gai 2009). They use in many countries for different prevention or treatment and mostly use in bakery products, nutritional supplements, cereal bars, cookies, bread, snacks etc (Beltran-Orozco and Romero 2003).It support to decrease the plasma cholesterol level and maintain the sugar level by slowing the digestion process and release of glucose. Major minerals are present in chia seed at a higher content such as calcium, magnesium, potassium (De Tucci 2006). Chia seed also known as salvia hispanica L (Peiretti P.G and Gai F, 2009). Mohid et al. (2013) determine that chia plant and grains have dark coloured or dark grains, like other plants and grains. This plant not assaulted by insects since it contains compounds that offer security. Chia plant contained fundamental oils and can be extracted from the leaves with fundamental oils and can be extracted from the leaves with fundamental components like beta caryophyllene, globulol, muroleno, beta-pinene, alpha humoleno and widdrol that act as repellent against insects.
|Benefits of chia seed on human health:|
|Examined the antioxidant||property of chia seed in rats||the||dietary||chia|
|oil actuated the expression of skeletal||muscle||and reestablished superoxide||dismutase||and|
|glutathione peroxides||expression.||In expansion, expanded treatment with||chia||seed|
|and brief treatment with||chia oil reestablished peroxisome proliferator actuated receptor-γ|
coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression. The antioxidant compounds display in chia is tocopherols,phytosterol, carotenoids and phenolic compounds too had a synergistic impact (Marineli et al.,2015). Part of chia keeping up the lipid and glucose homeostasis within the body there was a critical lessening in midsection circumference in sound people after a month of chia
supplementation with no alter in body weight perhaps due to particular misfortune of fat mass. In a persistent treatment, dietary chia seed diminished the visceral adiposity and affront resistance among sucrose-induced diabetic (Chicco et al., 2009).The affect of feeding chia seeds to a bunch of rats with dyslipidemia comes about uncovered that nourishing chia seeds significantly diminished the visceral adiposity, diminished triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels within the healthy people ingestion of chia 50g/day for 30 days trial then the diastolic blood weight
diminished from 66.1 to 61.5 mmhg with noteworthy decay in serum triglycerides and no side effects appear. (Vertommen et al., 2005)
Benefit of Chia seed oil:
Studies show chia seed oil was proposed for administration of inflammable issues like torment, redness and swelling which can cause extreme issues. Avoidance and administration of these health related issues was accomplished by incorporation of chia seed and its oil in day by day count calories because it contains PUFA, prostaglandins and eicosanoids which induce lesser degree of swelling (Comba et al., 2010). Divyapriya et al. (2016) stated that
chia seed extract work against three main pathogens of periodontal disease and it has antibacterial effect.
Extraction of chia seed oil:
Two methods were used for extraction of oil from the seeds.
- Hexanic extract (HE).
- Bligh-Dyer method (BDE) (Jumaah F et al., 2015).
To determine chemically, nutritionally, and commercially characterization of chia seed and oil.
To find out the difference between chia seed and chia oil effects on lipid profile.
To identify its possible benefits in the prevention of cardio vascular risk factor.
Review of literature:
Chia seeds with omega-3 fatty acids play a key part in avoiding the arrangement of clots and plaques within the supply routes (Reyes-Caudillo et al., 2008). The lipid substance in chia seeds changes from 25% to 40%, with 60% of the entire lipids made up of ALA (omega-3)and 20% composed of linoleic corrosive (omega-6) (Bresson et al., 2009). Calcium and potassium content in chia seed keep up the level of blood pressure (Vuksan et al., 2007).Among the cardiovascular hazard variables that can be altered, controlled or treated are abundance overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, with roughly 5% of global deaths attributed to excess weight (World Heart Federation 2012). High intake of total lipid, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as omega-6 and saturated fats cause the risk of coronary heart disease (Okuyama H, 2001). Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that consuming lipid rich in omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (Lorgeril M et al., 1996). Studies say that alpha linolenic fatty acid play important role on omega-3 status so the intake of alpha linolenic acid is vital (Baylin A et al., 2003).
Chia seed contain high amount of alpha linolenic acid (Weber CW et al., 1991). A research was conducted on rats. Two group of rats were consider in this research one group of rats fed chia seed and another group fed on normally control diet or chia oil then conduct a result it show low level of cholesterol in the serum of rats. A more research was conducted on animal some animals are on fed of chia seed and some on control diet so in that animals HDL level high which are fed on chia seed diet (Ayerza and Coates, 2005). Chia oil lessens the 66% serum triacylglycerol level and diet that are high in omega-3 fatty acids lower the plasma triacylglycerol
Mohamed AI et al., 2002). Most of the thinks about conducted on people utilizing chia seed looked at the relationship between its consumption and the conceivably impact it may have on cardio vascular variables, by looking at such information as body composition and mass, lipid profile, blood weight, blood sugar and fiery markers (Nieman et al., 2007-2012).
In exploratory considers chia seed supplementation weakened metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic alterations in rats. They famous progressed affront affectability and glucose resistance, and a diminishment in visceral fat, greasy liver and heart and liver irritation. No alter was found in plasma lipid concentrations or blood weigh (Poudyal 2012, Chicco 2008).
Postmenopausal analysis: Examined in 10 postmenopausal ladies utilizing 25g of processed chia per day over a seven week period and found a noteworthy increment in serum ALA and EPA concentrations (Coorey et al., 2014)
Chia oil comparison with other oils:
Many oil are used for lower the serum triglycerols level Yaniv Z et al., (1999) stated that sunflower oil enrich diet lower the 20% serum triglycerols. Kabir Y et al., (1996) stated that safflower oil, palm oil and flex seed oil reduce 15% serum or plasma triglycerols level. Study proved that chia fed diet increase HDL as to the further source of alpha linolenic acid this researched is conducted on rats (Ihara Watanabe et al., 1999) . Study demonstrate that stable mitochondrial covering help in oxidation reduction reaction during aerobic respiration by the presence of omega-3 fatty acids in chia seed oil such as eicosapentaenoic acid(ES) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and many of other lipids attack on free radicals and reduce lipid peroxidation (Watts JL et al., 2006).
Chia seed provide many nutrients that nutrients have many nutraceutical compounds. Chia seed oil make by two methods researches show that Hexane extract method is less effective than Bligh dyer method of chia seed because it extract polyphenols and does not use heat to evaporate the solvent. Result shows the chia containing alpha linolenic acid that increases the HDL level and lowers the triacylglycerol content but many studies did not elaborate statistical data in connection of cardiovascular diseases risk factor. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factor and consumption of chia seed are insufficient. Further research is hence needed.
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