DNA sequencing technologies have been around since the 1970s. At first, their use was expensive, complex and sometimes even dangerous (in the case of the old technique with radioactive probes). Like everything in Science, year after year technological evolution gave way to the development of sequencing by synthesis , the current foundation of Illumina’s next generation sequencers. Fig. 1. Genomic microbial with Illumina. Videos and Seminars. Available in: Microbial Genomics Currently, 90% of publications with sequencing methods report the use of this technology, highlighting its impact due to the massive performance in number of samples and amount of data. In the field of Microbiology, the substitution of traditional techniques becomes probable, since there have been so many applications and the scope that NGS sequencing has had, that it is already possible to distinguish such a Microbial Genomics to such a discipline derived and focused on genomic methods for the study of microbial communities. Next, learn about the applications and scope that this technology has had in Microbiology. 1. Microbial identification 2. Microbial diversity 3. Microbial evolution 4. Antimicrobial resistance 5. Microbiomes (humans, animals) 6. Microbiomes (environmental) 7. Outbreak and disease monitoring 8. Food safety In these applications, the most common method is complete genome sequencing that usually involves sub-methods : 1. Resequencing (re-assembly of sequences using a reference genome) or 2. De novo sequencing (complete assembly of a new genome without prior reference) . The most common techniques that are usually used for these purposes are: 16S sequencing (microbiomes) and shotgun sequencing (metagenomics), which we will talk about in future blogs. Within Illumina sequencing platforms, benchtop systems have capabilities that distinguish them for the study of microbial communities. Here you can see a comparison between them: If you consider this content to be of value to you, we recommend that you share it and follow the next entries of our Analitek Blog about 16S sequencing techniques and shotgun .

As we know within the global waste management strategy, the priority of treatment is prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling, recovery and disposal. The discharge is considered as the last alternative, however, the disposal facilities represent an indispensable element in a global waste planning.

A landfill, better known as a controlled deposit, is a facility for storing waste on the surface or underground, these are linked to multiple environmental problems that begin at their initial location, continuing with their exploitation and control. The way in which landfills affect the environment has been fully studied and documented over the years, therefore today most of the industries have conditions of total safety for the environment, provided with constructive measures and adequate control to avoid the production of contaminants.

One of the main impacts produced by landfills is the contamination of groundwater and surface water caused by leachate, which can last about 20 or 30 years after its closure.

Recall that leachate is a liquid effluent released by the mass of waste as a result of the decomposition of organic and putrescible fractions, carrying immiscible liquids, small particles, microorganisms and viruses. The level of severity due to landfill contamination will be determined by various factors; the composition, quantity, design and characteristics of the treatment of the landfill, climate, morphology, permeability and lithology of the substrate, depth of the water body, age of the landfill, toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistence of some substances of the effluent, compaction and absorption capacity of the residue, pH, presence of microorganisms, range of water movements and methods of waste disposal. Don’t forget your organic and inorganic load or the chemical solubility of the waste,5 producing eutrophication of water and the decrease in the concentration of oxygen available to organisms, as well as significant amounts of arsenic, lead and cadmium, potential contaminants that will affect us considerably.

There are various measurement methods to identify the amount of organic matter in wastewater , we can mention the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and which we will focus on talking today, total organic carbon (TOC) .

The Shimadzu TOC-L total organic carbon analyzer series , which offers an optimal selection of features and performance options to meet the specific requirements of the total organic carbon tests in a wide range of aqueous samples. The TOC-L provides a range of truly comprehensive measurement and by the patented method of detecting catalytic oxidation combustion / NDIR 680 ° C helping for quality control , process control and extensive research research in the environmental industries, Chemical and pharmaceutical.

How does the catalytic oxidation method work ? Well, the catalytic combustion oxidation method completely oxidizes easily decomposed low molecular weight organic compounds, as well as insoluble and macromolecular organic compounds difficult to decompose. In addition, the temperature required for catalytic combustion is significantly lower than that required for combustion without catalyst, which increases the life of the combustion tube and minimizes the effect of high salt content on the samples.

 

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