Definition of surrealism What is surrealist art?

We can say that the definition of  surrealist art  is a model that seeks to inspire surrealist changes with conceptual works without the need for these to be figurative. This movement began in France so that  Dadaism  was one of its foundations in the 1920s, it developed as a way to forget reality and find some way for the artist to close in on himself,a psychic impulse of the imaginary and the irrational. It emerged as part of the advancement of the artistic avant-gardes that wanted to represent different ideals from the academicists, breaking the laws of traditional painting and in order to draw the attention of the viewer directly, with unrealistic images and in many cases not even figurative .

This style of art tries to find inspiration in the artist’s mind, that is, it tries to forget all logical or rational thought since in this style of art reality does not help us to represent a new work with a different expectation. That is why the painter does not represent themes that speak of past experiences, objects, changes, among other things, his main objective is to represent reality that others do not see, that is, a reality that is in the unconscious or dream them. This is why surrealist art is one of the most difficult art styles to understand and interpret.

Poetry was the beginning of surrealism and later it spread to painting and sculpture, extending to the political from 1925, identifying with communist ideology.

The surrealistic art began with  The Interpretation of Dreams Freud  in 1901 . Freud’s ideas at the beginning were not well considered but little by little his ideas penetrated the philosophical and artistic imagination of the moment and the artists of the moment impregnated with their theories, began to describe, draw, paint or mold that world outside from the realm of consciousness.

It was André Breton who wrote “Surrealist Manifesto” in 1924, according to André Breton, a new art was developed in the postwar period, this new art represented the fantasies and dreams of the artists and not the cruel reality that existed at that time. Although this type of movement had political principles and that is why it was associated with the French Communist Party. For this reason, contradictory ideas were created and the art style began to deteriorate.

Characteristics of surreal art 

As we have previously said, this kind of art was characterized by making magic, unconscious, fantasy and dream representations, in addition to the irrationality that the works had. Among the best known features we can highlight:

  • It seeks to access the ultimate essence of reality by entering deep fields of thought and leaving it free of all rational subjection.
  • They mix objects, feelings and concepts that reason keeps separate, appearing free and unexpected associations of words, unusual metaphors, dream images and even delusions.
  • it’s a lifestyle. Breton exalts the vital “waiting and availability” necessary to enter a trance with objects, symbols and people, with great fortuitous and passing encounters, with a “crazy” love, with a magical, non-sentimental foundation, resorting to cruelty and humor .
  • The close initial relationships between surrealism and Marxism make a whole liberating vision of man unfold, a new man. In a way, surrealism inaugurates a new way of reading.
  • To achieve this goal of liberating the human being from personal and social repressions, the Surrealists used a series of techniques that sought freedom of creation and forgetting reason.
  • Both forms and objects lacked their traditional meaning, that is, the artist wants the viewer to be disoriented.
  • Erroneous images are created so that a thing or object can be interpreted in various ways.
  • The artist gave importance to destruction, mystery, the paradoxical and the absurd, among other things.
  • Many of the works will be a criticism of modern life.
  • Imagination will be used as logic.
  • The manufacture of objects, cinematography and photography.
  • The assembly of objects and collages.
  • Drawings created by rubbing rocky surfaces, these drawings are called Forttage.
  • They used a method called “Exquisite Corpse”, this technique was mainly based on various artists drawing different parts of a text or a figure.
  • Whatever manner of expression the mind had had no control over the rest.
  • Inspiration was based on forbidden and hidden thoughts, sex will be used impudently.

Among other characteristics, these are the most outstanding, since every surrealist art artist will look for ways to mislead the observer.

Abstract Surrealism

It is characterized by applying pure automatism, which is why artists invent their own figurative universes. Thus, in automatism, ideas and image associations have a fast, spontaneous, fluid emergence and origin, not taking coherence and meaning into account at all.

The most relevant representatives are: Masson, Miró or Klee since they create personal figurative universes in their works based on the purest automatism. Therefore, in abstract surrealism more emphasis is placed on the chromatic, formal, and structural aspects of a work, without imitating models or natural forms.

Therefore, it is a rather subjective art that represents free forms arising from the imagination of the creator. Thus with abstraction it is possible to transmit various types of sensations, which can be aggressive, calm, dynamic, rest, disorder, harmony. Consequently, the more regular the abstract form, the more sense of stability, calm and rest it transmits. On the contrary, if the work is more irregular it tends to transmit feelings of disorder, aggressiveness, movement and agitation.

Another important characteristic of abstract surrealism is that it tends to generate an autonomous visual language, endowed with its own meanings. This language has been built from the fauvista and expressionist experiences, exalting the strength of color and converging on lyrical or informalism abstraction, also starting from cubist structuring, which configures the different geometric and constructive abstractions.

Figurative surrealism

This current was born in Europe, in France, after the First World War, Salvador Dalí being one of its maximum representatives. Therefore, all you have to do is see his works to be ecstatic with the way Salvador Dalí envelops the viewer by taking him into the surreal world of his magnificent paintings. In which he dimensions his inner world and how he perceives it taking it to the real world. Thus, with this recreated fantastic world, the viewer who is in the real world is brought back to his inner world.

Thus, when studying his psyche, psychologists and psychoanalysts affirm that the only way Salvador Dalí had to deal with the separation from his mother from birth, was by recreating that inner world that only he could elucidate through his paintings. Thus, in his paintings he highlights figurative surrealism, the almost photographic form of the figures.

Types of surrealism

Surrealism emerges as a current of thought from which a highly differentiated aesthetic emerges, a science of the sensible that uses the image to perceive globalization. This current of thought is spreading to literature, the plastic arts, audiovisual media, among others. A transcendent characteristic of this current of thought is the projective identification with something external to the subject that allows him to become aware of what is reflected back to him from outside. It is divided into figurative and abstract surrealism. We must remember that Salvador Dalí is one of the main representatives in Dadaism that we will see a little later.

Surrealism in literature

It is an artistic and literary movement that began in the French country from Dadaist art in the 1920s, following André Breton guidelines, one of the main poets of the time. Therefore, the terms surrealism and surrealism in literature according to Guillaume Apollinaire in May 1917, in a handwritten program he wrote for and in the musical Parade, states that its authors achieved an integration between painting and dance, between the plastic and mimetic arts, which is the beginning of a broader art that was yet to come.

From surrealist literature, he seeks a perfection of limpid beauty, seeking formal perfection and the lucid success of content, in an elegant contemporary literary creation. In this current a set of intuitions and ideas of deep coherence is manifested. Therefore, there is a constant thematic structure in the work of the representative writers of this trend that is adopted in each poetic stage. The external structure, the chosen forms of expression, the poetic modes may vary, but the foundation, the literary essence persists unalterable. The basic structure is reiterated with diverse and significant variants, always having a constant in the background.

Making a similarity to what romantic music is in its different variations around the same theme, each variant shows a new appreciation, a new perspective. Therefore, the set delivers a final mosaic that always refers to the same supreme point that is barely recovered and is lost. Therefore, surrealism in literature implies a theory about love, life and imagination, of the relationship between the human being and the world.

The most representative literature is that of Octavio Paz, his imagination does not lead so much to the irrational game of flirtatious poetry of the French current, but rather to the game of destiny as the ball game of the Aztec gods. Another aspect that characterizes it and that is also represented in Paz, is the attitude towards language, since, as Blanchot affirms, he considers that it was Surrealism that gave words the first time.

Thus the movement was born as a strong operation carried out on language, that is, the imaginative liberation of language, where in the end chance plays with the word. This consideration of language leads to an intrinsic reference to what is sacred to otherness, to that other to which the human consciousness is essentially directed. In other words, surrealism wants to preserve the essence of religious consciousness by rejecting what it considers its alienation.

Thus from this literary current, in human love resides all the regenerative power of the world, in a kind of magnetic divinization of women. Therefore, love is considered the recovery of lost powers, the unity of opposites, the power of destiny like dreams and poetic inspiration. Likewise, from this current the woman communicates the human being with the forces of nature and the hidden unconscious in a manifestation of direct relationship with the supreme point or unity of the opponents (Martínez Torrón, 1983).

Surrealism in the plastic arts

Surrealism in the plastic arts starts from the fact that form is considered the central motif, the key concept, of art and architecture. Therefore, it is considered that the forms always transmit ethical values, refer to cultural aspects, exchange social criteria and refer to meanings. Consequently, from Surrealism it is wanted to show that behind each one of the basic formal concepts there is a vision of the world, a conception of time and a defined idea of ​​the subject.

For this reason, each formal concept is related not only to works but also to philosophical and scientific theories. All the complexity of the architecture and art of the 20th century has been integrated from surrealism around essential concepts that allow to relate to each other the works of architecture, plastic arts, literature, cinema, photography and fashion.

In this sense, the development of concepts are interpreted as creative mechanisms and formal worlds. Therefore, from surrealism the concepts of: Organisms, machines, with abstraction and rationalism, realisms, subdivided into humanist realism and pop culture, structures, distinguishing radical criticism, typological criticism and minimalism, and dispersions, with fragments, chaos and energies, which later generate trends in the arts of the 20th century.

In another order of ideas, surrealism in the plastic arts is characterized by a classical aesthetic and compositional system, which despite its variables and evolution has unitary and timeless criteria based on order, proportion, symmetry, harmony, hierarchy and representation, which later allowed to enter a new era in which the universal compositional laws that gave rise to this current disappeared.

Surrealism in the visual arts is also considered to be a movement that sought to discover the truth, with automatic writing, without rational corrections, using images to express emotions, but which never followed logical reasoning. However, in the plastic arts what most characterizes the movement is the creation of objects and forms without a traditional meaning, the creation of these images can lead to mistakes so that the same thing can be interpreted in different ways. Giving much importance to the paradoxical, the absurd, the expiration, the destruction and the mysterious.

In this sense, from surrealism the plastic arts in general are characterized by: the abstract or figurative symbolic forms that try to capture the images of the deepest reality of the human being, the subconscious and the world of dreams. The animation of the inanimate, the isolation of anatomical fragments, the incongruous elements, the metamorphosis, the creation of fantastic machines, the relationships between nudes and machinery, the evocation of chaos, empty perspectives, their own figurative universes.

With specific techniques of surrealist art, such as automatism. Thus surrealism in the plastic arts was based on images and ideas that come from the subconscious. Therefore, the rational and logical aspects are invalidated by the spontaneous flow of creative impulses from the creator’s surreal mind. The making of surrealist art is therefore largely a process of coincidence.

Surrealism in the audiovisual media

An outstanding characteristic of surrealism in the audiovisual media is that the images and reminiscences are worked from a totally dreamlike logic and free from all repression of the senses. Thus, surreal movies instantly grab attention, and from there, the imagination shoots to unsuspected places.

Likewise, from surrealism, in photography, some techniques were taken such as collage, which was taken further by creating other new images. For example, the so-called found objects and better known as ready-made objects, were widely represented in surreal photography. These objects were discovered in Dadaism and Surrealism, from waste products found by chance, such as labels, stamps, tin cans, everyday objects, pieces of metal and worn fabrics used in collage. Therefore, in artistic use, these waste objects are given a new aesthetic function apart from the consumption mechanism.

Other techniques very widespread from surrealism in the world of the image, are the so-called Rays or Rays of Man Ray. With this surreal technique, images are obtained without a camera. It consists of exposing photographic paper to light for a few seconds. Then objects are placed on top of that paper, and what is reflected in the “photograph” will be its shape. Consequently, the way of working of photographers was based on the unconscious representation of reality and on the manipulation of images.

Surrealism in painting

In surrealism and painting in 1928, whose maximum exponent is Breton, in which surrealist psychology is taken into account, of the unconscious defined as the region of the intellect where the human being does not objectify reality but forms a whole with it. Therefore, art, in this sphere, is not representation but direct vital communication of the individual with the whole.

Hence, a connection is established that is expressed as a priority in significant coincidences (objective chance), in which the desire of the individual and the becoming alien to him converge in an unpredictable way as well as in the dream, where the most disparate are revealed united by secret relationships. Thus, surrealism proposes to transfer images to the art world through a free mental association, without the intrusion of consciousness. Hence, automatism is chosen as the method, collected as a witness to spiritualistic mediumistic practices, but radically changing its interpretation, therefore, what speaks through the medium is not the spirits, but the unconscious.

Ernst (1891-1979), became one of the main exponents of Surrealism since he created and used the technique of frotagge, which consists of rubbing a lead or pencil lead on a paper that rests on an object leaving its mark on said paper, with all the irregularities. Thus, the emerged images will appear loaded with mysterious evocations, signs of catastrophe and desolation. So one of these works with this technique is entitled: Cities, Europe after the rain.

Surrealism with other artistic models

Surrealism is not only an artistic option, it is also a movement that promotes the integral revolution, the total liberation of the human being. Thus his goal was to transform life. This total liberation that the surrealists seek focuses fundamentally on two areas of personality and life. On the one hand, they seek to free human beings from their own repressions.

In this regard, it is linked to other fields such as Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. Likewise, surrealism seeks liberation from the repression that bourgeois society and its state model exerts on the human being. In this trend, surrealism is related to Marxism. Therefore, the surrealists sought to draw the attention of the human unconscious. With this they sought to provoke actions, not to be understood.  

For this reason, surrealism must be considered as a movement that rehumanizes the dehumanized art of the avant-garde, that closes a period and involves a return to existential, religious and social issues. Thus in its relationship with other artistic models, the following features, most significant of the entire avant-garde era, can be cited:  

  1. Reality is not criticized, but it is accessed in its essence, entering deep fields of thought and leaving it free of any rational subjection and apart from any aesthetic or moral concern.
  2. A new universe is conceived which is that of the subconscious, capable of producing disturbing and strange works, dominated by irrationality, non-logic and techniques of free association.
  3. In line with the rejection of an informative or descriptive vision of reality, the concept of the wonderful arises. In the Surrealist Manifesto, the wonderful is clearly reflected because it is always beautiful. Consequently everything that is considered wonderful, whatever it may be, is beautiful.
  4. As outstanding resources, the use of disturbing images, the presence of prophecies, dreams, black humor and cruelty (as routes contrary to sentimentality), Satanism and the allusion to surreal objects always stand out.

Ways of making surreal art – characteristics of surrealism

Two ways of making surreal art were distinguished:

  1.  One that defended automatism, where abstract surrealists such as Joan Miró and André Masson were found, who created their own figurative universes. In automatism, ideas and associations of images arise quickly, spontaneously, fluidly, without paying any attention to coherence and meaning.
  2.  And another that believed that naturalistic figuration could be an equally valid resource. Where figurative surrealists such as Salvador Dalí, René Magritte,, Paul Delvaux, Estéfano Viu or Yves Tanguy, were interested in dreams and magical realism.

Techniques used in surreal art

Various artistic techniques were used in surrealism that we are going to know next among the most popular that we find today collage and calligraphy that continues to be used we are not in schools but also in institutes.

Exquisite corpse 

It was one of the main innovations in surrealist art,  which consists in the collective creation of a set of images or texts, an artist begins a work and passes it to another artist, who continues it without looking at what the previous creator did, being the final work a work that has been done collectively.

Caligram

It is a poem, phrase or word in which the typography, calligraphy or manuscript text is arranged or configured in such a way that it creates a kind of image and that image created by the words visually expresses what the word or words say.

Collage

It is an artistic technique that consists of assembling diverse elements into a unified whole.

Automatism 

It is a most important surreal technique from the birth of surrealism until today.

Smoked

Smoking or fumage, called in French, is a technique where prints are made by smoke on paper or canvas.

Cubomania

It is a method to create collages using an image cut into small squares and ordered randomly, Gherasim Luca, was the artist who used this technique the most.

Decalcomania

This painting technique was invented by Óscar Domínguez, it consists of applying black gouache on a paper, which is placed on top of another sheet on which light pressure is exerted, then they are peeled off before they dry.

Soufflage

It is a surreal technique created by Jimmy Earns in where a liquid paint is sucked in to inspire or reveal an image.

Surreal women

The surrealism of the 1920s considered women an artistic object , as if she were a muse of inspiration. For this reason, at that time, artists went largely unnoticed in the eyes of critics and the public. However, many of them were transgressive and controversial because they understood surrealism as a tool to claim their personal freedom.

In the works of the surrealist women it can be seen that they explored the unconscious through dreams , induced trances, thoughts and feelings. However, history left them in an undeserved background. So today it seeks to regain the prominence that these women should always have. Thus they reappear fully free, as creators of unique and original worlds all, with a feminine accent.

In 1924, André Breton carried out the First Surrealism Manifesto , with which he founded the surrealist movement that, although it supported in theory the equality and artistic option of women, in practice considered her as an artistic object, a muse or a sexual object. However, despite the masculinity of this movement, and the mistreatment that it, created by men, gave to women, there was a group of women artists who, from the twenties on, were protagonists and participants, to a greater or lesser extent. degree, of surrealism.

What contributions did they make?

The decades of the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century were both fertile and controversial times in the fields of ideas, art and industrial progress. Especially in Paris, considered the treasure of all the avant-gardes of the time, where the most revolutionary phenomenon in the history of contemporary art occurred, such as the surrealist women’s movement: plastic artists, writers, philosophers, inventors, filmmakers, patrons and dressmakers. they used to work together with absolute spontaneity, in a continuous flow of ideas and collaborations as natural then as it is today, both the separation and the secret between the different disciplines.

Thus, a transcendent fact of the female surrealist movement is that at that time, fashion was only haute couture, and was almost exclusively in the hands of women. Vionnet, Lanvin, Alix, Louise Boulanger and the Callot Sisters were notable and famous dressmakers, and each fashion house had its clientele. Likewise, the female surrealist movement reflected that the power was theirs, having Coco Chanel,as the highest representative of all, who introduced the concepts of youth and rationalism in sewing, and who prophetically said that fashion that is not made for the masses is not fashion, since according to her she dies at birth. Therefore, Channel always defended her work as a profession and not as an art, that is why it is considered that from Surrealism women continue to owe the current silhouette.

Surrealist painters

Surrealism corresponds to a legion led by André Breton and artists such as Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Man Ray, Buñuel, Miró and Magritte, to name a few. Despite this movement, it also had very important female representatives, who deserve special importance and study beyond famous surrealist women such as Leonora Carrington or Remedios Varo. Below is an interesting compiled list of seven artists who should know each other from art and dreams.

Surrealist women contributed to this movement in aspects such as the narrative style with a feminist conscience , since from the artistic field they managed to reflect in their works the relationship between science and art, seeking to reveal the internal order of the fantastic world taken from their experiences. personal, seeking the rational in the world of fantasy, nature, alchemy, the supernatural, united with women as a source of sensitivity and regenerative powers. Thus in the works of Remedios Varo, one of his representatives, this reconciliation of these two worlds is observed, both scientific and mythical, thus giving rise to transcendence and reincarnation.

Surrealist sculptors

The first association of artistic sculptors with the world of surrealism were sculptures in rounded bulk . Although they had a fascination for organic forms and the order of biomorphic renewal that is interpreted in oval forms in the 1915s. Similarly, the arrangement of the elements of the sculpture is highlighted in a horizontal way, as observed in the work of Giacometti in his board games. Also Elisa Breton who made surreal boxes and sculptures with various objects. 

Likewise, it is evident from the sculpture , the impression that the objects give to the viewer when approaching, that do not seem more than modified occupants that swim in opposite currents, such is the case of the work of Arp in which contoured entities are specified. Likewise, the fantastic way of arranging and bringing to the palpable the shapes of objects, as internal projections of reality, is observed in the work of these sculptors. Thus, currently one of the most representative sculptors of surrealism is the American Nancy Fouts, who works and exhibits surreal sculptures of ordinary and everyday objects, animals or symbols, transforming and ordering them, with a different character from the original. Affirming that his work has no depth but that it amuses and makes people smile.

Surrealist photographers

Surrealism strongly influenced photography in the sense that it delves deep into the human being, the subconscious and the world of dreams to have an understanding of the human as a whole. Thus, the greatest contribution was in the creation of innovative techniques such as photomontage, ray diagrams, schadographs and photocollage, which relied on light and sensitive supports, even so leaving aside the camera.

Another characteristic that comes from surrealism in photography is that the imagination is shown in a very evident way , without putting obstacles to the mind or reason. The belief of a superior reality is shown, in the omnipresence of the dream and the real functionality of the thought, separating all aesthetic and moral concern.

This is the belief of surrealist photographers that to make this type of photography does not require excessive digital work on them. Because they affirm that on the one hand there is the retouching, adding or removing some element and on the other very different it is to build the entire composition digitally, using even other people’s photographs or image banks . It is interesting to highlight the work of Claude Cahun, poetic and with autobiographical features, in the search for personal myth and the constant exploration of the limits of the genre in costumes of various kinds.

Surreal filmmakers

The surrealism influenced the cinema with the creation of specific techniques , such is the case of one of his titles most iconic cinematic techniques like effect “fuzzy” and overprinting which are perfectly reflected in the work of Germaine Dulac, as It was:   La souriante Madame Beudet (1923). In surrealist cinema, the filmmakers lived in constant experimentation, often as escape routes from their own concerns and conflicts, not mattering so much the content but rather the psychological portraits they captured.

On the other hand, one of the greatest influences of surrealism in cinema was on documentary photography, which later allowed to develop the documentary film technique, which would have occurred in various ways.

One of them, for the publication of photographs , which allowed new photographers to present formal models from which to forge their aesthetics. In a second term, it helped them build a panorama of new themes, which until then had been absent from photography, which was rather done within the limits of the urban, both physically and socially and morally (in the philosophy of the Surrealists). , the published photograph highlighting the space that the image occupied in the movement).

But the greatest influence of surrealism on documentary photographers occurred in the conceptual, by giving them intellectual and vital approaches, through concepts of an ontological, epistemological, anthropological, political and existential nature to construct their vision of established reality and how they define it. Later they understood in their own practice.

Surrealist dressmakers

Most of the surreal influence on fashion has its origin in Paris, at the beginning of the 20th century, this city is considered the nerve center of ideas, movements and innovations that later spread throughout Europe.

Above all, in the field of design art, sewing and fashion. Paris seen as the city ​​of love became the home of a group of writers, artists, inventors and, among them, dressmakers . Thus the 1930s and 1940s, which were marked by wars, diverted attention to the importance of the figure of women, who marked the world of fashion. The biggest turn was around haute couture that was almost exclusively in the hands of women.

Emblematic cases such as that of Vionnet, Lanvin or the Callot sisters who gained a great reputation and had their own houses, each with its exclusive clientele Thus all the power of fashion and haute couture fell on them , who then accompanied by Coco Chanel. This great figure of haute couture and fashion, introduced the concepts of youth and rationalism, as well as defended his posture of haute couture as a profession and not an art, being his strongest conception that fashion is not made for The masses are not fashionable, because according to her, she dies at birth.

There were also contrary movements, even when you had cubist artists, rationalist architects and the concept of the basics in Chanel’s sewing . These alternative movements come from the surreal influence. Thus, the most outstanding dressmaker in this trend was Elsa Schiaparelli who with her avant-garde, casual and colorful designs, caused controversy and competition among the most prestigious dressmakers of the moment, becoming the only rival of Chanel, who referred to her as the artist Italian who makes clothes and had to share clientele with her, something that she disliked in a big way. Thus, these two dressmakers brought war and competition to their field, which was followed very strongly by the press.

Surrealist Writers

Surrealist writers were branded as being insane only because they had runaway creativity, they were thought to need psychiatric treatment because they had a personality difficult to subdue due to their social, political, and moral dissent. They were also classified as witches because without further ado, they insisted on transgressing norms that they felt was suffocating them. They were said to carry the flesh demon because they did not bow to castrating sexuality. In each of these statements you can see the spirit of the surrealist writerssuch as: Virginia Woolf, Leonora Carrington, Alejandra Pizarnik, Clarice Lispector, who were branded as mentally ill and were simply misunderstood by a society that did not take the time and knowledge required to tackle their prolific works.

The writer Marta Sanz, current representative of surrealism when speaking of her novel   Clavicle (Anagram), makes a story that is widely framed within the surrealist movement, as a psychosomatic and current axis, says that it is a broken text because she wanted to reflect the image of the female body as violated territory and pasture of the fragility that has to do with gender, since over time, she extends her perception of vulnerability to the people she loves, emphasizing the precariousness of gender in particular and the country in general.

Therefore, her metaphor of a whole present tear, she refers to as the sequels that let the body navigate against the current and considers that it is almost impossible to separate the psyche, from chemistry, from physiology, from the spirit of the economy. , because according to her, in the case of women, a weight is carried on the back that sometimes it is not known what name to put on it.

Surrealist Art Artists – Most Famous Representatives of Surrealism

Salvador Dalí: He was the most outstanding artist, with dream images of various meanings, with works such as “The Persistence of Memory” from 1931, also known as “The Soft Clocks” for the incorporation of deformed clocks into the landscape of a sunset in the beach, give the impression of the subjectivity of time and space. Although Salvador Dalí is part of surrealism, he is also very important in Dadaism.

Joan Miró: Spanish painter, he painted in symbols and doodles, a personal universe, product of his incredible imagination, with outstanding works such as “The Harlequin Carnival” created in 1925 and “Dutch Interior” from 1928, among others.

André Breton: he was a poet considered the father of this movement, with his work, “Surrealist Manifesto” that he created in 1924, promoting free thought, without the shackles of reasoning, morality or aesthetics, governed by automatism, as if it were to represent dreams.

Francis Picabia : His beginnings were in Post-Impressionism, later in Fauvism, in Cubism and excel in Dadaism, he joined Surrealism.

Max Ernst: This artist excelled in painting, where fantasy is portrayed so convincingly that it appears real.

René Magritte: surrealist artist endowed this movement with a conceptual charge based on the play of ambiguous images and their meaning denoted through words, calling into question the relationship between a painted object and the real one.

Paul Delvaux: this artist charges his works with a thick eroticism based on his character of estrangement in the spaces of Giorgio de Chirico.

Pablo Picasso: He joined the surrealist movement in 1925, his works from his Dinard period from 1928 to 1930 are considered surreal, in that Picasso combines the monstrous in the composition of half-machine figures, half-monsters that look gigantic and sometimes terrifying.

Óscar Domínguez: this artist invented the decalcomania, it is a technique where black gouache is applied on a paper which is placed on top of another sheet on it that is exerted a light pressure and before it dries off.

 

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