What is meant by service ? In general, the notion of service is an activity or action that is intangible, cannot be touched but can be identified, planned and implemented to meet customer demand and satisfaction.
Another opinion says the notion of service is an economic activity that involves various interactions with consumers or with property, but there is no transfer of ownership.
In the process of producing services, can use or not use tangible goods. Even though providing services requires tangible goods, there is no transfer of ownership of the goods.
Also read: Service Companies
Understanding Services According to Experts
In order to better understand what services are, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:
- Christian Gronross
According to Christian Gronross, understanding services is a process that consists of a series of intangible activities that usually occur in interactions between customers and service employees and / or physical resources or goods and or service provider systems, which are provided as solutions to customer problems.
- Phillip Kotler
According to Phillip Kotler, the meaning of services is all actions or performance offered by one party to another party that is in principle intangible and does not cause any transfer of ownership. Production can be related and can also not be tied to a physical product.
- Adrian Payne
According to Adrian Payne, the notion of service is an economic activity consisting of a number of intangible elements (values or benefits) associated with it, which involves a number of interactions with consumers or with property, but does not result in a transfer of ownership.
- Djaslim Saladin
According to Djaslim Saladin (2004: 134), the notion of service is all activities or benefits offered by one party to another party and is essentially intangible, and does not result in ownership of something.
- Ratih Hurriyati
According to Ratih Hurriyati (2005: 28), the notion of service is an economic activity with outputs other than products in the physical sense, consumed and produced at the same time, providing added value and in principle intangible for its first buyer.
Also read: Understanding Commodities
Characteristics of Services
A service product has special characteristics and characteristics that distinguish it from other products. According to Adrian Payne, the characteristics and characteristics of services are as follows:
- Not having Intangibility
The most important characteristic of services is that they are intangible. In other words, services are in the form of services because they cannot be seen, felt, or touched as in the case of physical goods.
- Changing (Variability)
Services are a performance and are heterogeneous. In addition, services are very volatile, depending on who, when and where a service is performed. That is why there is no exactly the same service even if it is done by one person.
Generally, service products are produced and consumed at the same time, with consumer participation in the process. In other words, consumers must be at the requested service and see or take part in the service activities.
Service products cannot be stored, resold, or returned to the service producer where someone bought it. That way, the service is a product that is easy to disappear or cannot last long.
Also read: The Meaning of the Marketplace
Types of Services
Basically there are many forms of services consumed by the community. However, in broad outline the types of services can be divided into several types, namely:
- Personal Care Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; massages, beauty treatments, salons, laundry, etc.
- Housing Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; hotel rooms, apartments, residential houses, boarding, and others.
- Communication Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; telephone, telegram, computer, internet.
- Household Business Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; gardener services, drinking water, home repairs, and others.
- Transportation Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; taxi, freight forwarding, freight forwarding, car rental services.
- Recreation and Entertainment Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; zoo, flower garden, tourist attractions, entertainment places, and others.
- Other Business and Professional Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; legal services, accountant services, marketing services, and others.
- Insurance, Bank and Financial Services, some of which are included in this type of service include; taxation, insurance, banking, credit.
There are many examples of services that are often used by the community. Referring to several types of services mentioned above, the examples of services are as follows:
- Freight forwarding service
- Transportation services (goods / passengers)
- Tourism services
- Photography service
- Barber services
- Translation services
- Article writer services
- Online marketing services
- Car rental services
- Lodging services
- Interior design services
- Home renovation services
- Vehicle repair shop
- Vehicle washing service (car / motorcycle)
- Photocopy services
- Wedding organizer services
- AC maintenance services
- Computer maintenance and repair services
- Cleaning service( cleaning service )
- And others