- General Definition of Motivation
- Definition of Motivation According to Experts
- Motivation Factors
- The Satisfaction Factor
- Maintenance factor
- Types of Motivation
- Motivation Theories
- Maslow’s Theory
- Theory of Justice
- Expectancy Theory
- Motivation Theory
- Motivation Process
- Providing Effective Motivation
General Definition of Motivation
The definition of motivation is a process that explains the existence of an intensity, persistence, and direction from the individual to achieve a predetermined goal. At least, there are 3 main elements listed in the definition of motivation, namely direction, persistence, and intensity.
Motivation can be called a reason behind an individual’s actions. A person is said to be highly motivated if he has a strong reason to achieve what he wants and do the work that is currently being carried out. This is of course a little different from the definition of motivation known to the public, which is usually identified with the meaning of spirit.
Definition of Motivation According to Experts
According to Weiner, an expert, motivation is an internal condition that can provide enthusiasm for action, is able to encourage someone to achieve certain goals, and keeps someone interested in certain activities.
According to another expert named Uno, motivation is an internal drive as well as an external drive that originates from within a person and is indicated by the existence of a desire and interest, drive and need, aspirations and hopes, as well as appreciation and respect.
Motivation is a form of what makes an individual act in such a way that it appears from an interaction between the individual and the situation he is facing.
Maslow developed a theory known as the hierarchy theory, where according to him there are 2 main factors that make motivation emerge. These factors are:
1. The Satisfaction Factor
Satisfaction factors are known as satisfier or intrinsic motivation. This factor comes from within the individual which will encourage someone to produce an achievement. Examples of these factors are:
- Job satisfaction. This is one of the determinants of stability in a job satisfaction factor which is closely related to personality.
- Responsible. This can make an individual in his work put forward caution in order to produce a quality output, not just a matter of quantity.
- Achievements. This of course can encourage someone to further develop their creativity and abilities and energy to be able to achieve higher achievements as long as there is an opportunity.
2. Maintenance factor
A maintenance factor known as disatisfier or extrinsic motivation. This factor is also known as the hygene factor. This one factor is extrinsic originating from outside the individual. These factors can be:
- Interpersonal relationships among peers, superiors, or subordinates.
- Working conditions.
- Work safety and security.
Meanwhile, according to an expert named Chatab, motivational factors can also consist of:
- Results of work, success or achievement.
- A job full of various kinds of challenges.
- Recognition or appreciation.
- Progress and the existence of growth issues.
- Greater responsibility than anything else, and
Types of Motivation
Motivation can be classified into two types, namely:
External motivation where this motivation comes from outside a person with the hope of reaching predetermined goals and is beneficial for the individual concerned.
Internal motivation where this motivation can grow from within a person without having to be influenced by other people to be able to do something useful to achieve predetermined initial goals.
Motivation at work will appear from two different aspects, namely from an active and passive perspective.
- Seen from a passive perspective, motivation will appear as a need so that it can mobilize and mobilize a person’s potential and work power in the desired direction in order to achieve the stated goals.
- From an active or dynamic perspective, work motivation will appear as a positive effort in helping to mobilize and mobilize power and various kinds of potential workforce to be more productive than before so as to achieve and realize the goals previously set.
There are several theories of motivation that are known in studying motivation, namely:
1. Maslow’s Theory
This theory states that a person’s behavior and work is influenced by the urge to be able to meet various kinds of needs, both tiered and in another nature. if the first need is met, then the second need will emerge which becomes the next priority to be met immediately. This will continue until it reaches the fifth level of need.
2. Theory of Justice
The theory of justice developed by Adam Smith. This theory states that there are 3 main components used in discussing the theory of justice, including:
- Outcome, which is a value that can be obtained and felt by some employees, such as wages, promotion opportunities or bonuses.
- Input which is a form of value that can be accepted by employees so that they are able to support the performance concerned.
- Equity in equity, which means employees are satisfied or not, will be seen from the results of comparing various kinds of input and outcome of the employee concerned with the inputs and outcomes of other employees.
- Comparison person. The point is that an employee in the same company or organization becomes an employee or employee in another organization or company that is different.
3. Expectancy Theory
This theory states that motivation is a result of the results that a person wants to obtain and the estimation that his or her actions will have an impact and lead to an outcome that he wants.
This means that if someone wants something, then there is a wide opportunity for him, then the person concerned will continue to try to get it.
4. Motivation Theory
Achievement motivation theory put forward by Hasibuan. This theory states that an employee has a potential energy reserve within himself.
Regarding how this energy will be released, of course, it is determined from the strength and encouragement and motivation of a person related to the existing situation and opportunity. This energy will later be utilized by employees in the presence of interrelated motives and basic needs, the expectation of a success, and incentives from the values attached to a predetermined goal.
Motivation exists because there is a need that is more basic in nature. To be able to meet these needs, behavioral impulses arise. If an individual experiences some form of motivation and encouragement, then that person is said to experience an imbalance.
The process of happening motivation basically shows a dynamic that is obtained from the existence of a more basic need. From this urge is born a behavior and action that leads to obtaining satisfaction from within the individual himself.
Providing Effective Motivation
In order to provide effective motivation, according to an expert named Armstrong advises you to pay attention to the following things:
- Identify several factors that can have an influence on motivation, such as patterns of needs that drive certain goals and also circumstances in which these needs can or cannot be met.
- Understand the basic process of motivation, the existence of models of various kinds of needs, the goals to be aimed at, and the actions and the effects of predetermined experiences and expectations.
- Understand that apart from all the factors mentioned above, there is a more complex relationship between motivation and work achievement.
- Recognize that motivation cannot only be obtained by creating a feeling of satisfaction, because sometimes contentment can lead to self-gratification and cause indolence for the individual.
Motivation is felt to be more effective if it is balanced with the following conditions, namely:
- There is guaranteed hope for the future for safety at work.
- There are social relationships that are deliberately created and are kinship in nature.
- There is an opportunity to develop yourself.
- There is an appreciation for every positive activity.
- The provision of incentives.