Definition, Characteristics, and Classification of Kingdom Plantae or Plants

The following Biology material will explain the definition, characteristics, and classification of kingdom plantae. Look carefully at the explanation below.

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Characteristics – Plantae

The characteristics possessed by plantae, are as follows:

  • Plants that almost all contain green pigments or chlorophyll wrapped in chloroplasts.
  • Plants that can make their own food
  • Based on plants that contain celluse that can provide strength
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Has cellulose walls
  • Food reserves in the form of starch
  • The fertilized embryos are contained in seeds and fed by the female parent

Kingdom Plantae includes groups of Bryophyta or Moss , Pteridophyta or ferns , and Spermatophyta or seed plants . Kingdom Plantae has members of approximately five hundred thousand species.

Classification of plants based on body structure includes, structure of body organs, habitat, presence of transporting tissue, type of stele, position, shape, size, and repetition of leaves, and structure of the reproductive organs and ways of reproduction.

Kingdom Plantae classification

Moss plants or Bryophyta

Mature plants on earth consist of no less than twenty-five thousand species. Moss plants have a more complex body structure compared to Thallophyta. Moss has the following characteristics:

  • Many celled and flat body shape, attached to the substrate with a height of one to two centimeters and up to twenty centimeters.
  • The cell wall is formed of cellulose and does not have tissue that is strengthened by liginin such as reinforcing tissue in higher plants.
  • The root is rhizoid
  • It has no stem except moss leaves
  • Microfil or scaly leaves
  • The young leaves do not curl
  • Does not have a carrier file
  • Spores grow or germinate in the form of protonema
  • In terms of metagenesis, gametophyte is dominant
  • The chromosomes of mosses are haploid
  • The haploid phase includes spores, protonema, mosses, anteredium, archegonium, ovum, and sperm
  • The diploid phase includes zygotes, sporogonium, sporangium
  • Moss plants do not have transport vessels so that the transport process in the body uses parenchymal cells.
  • Its habitat is in a humid and wet place, except for Sphagnum which can live in water.
  • The spread of moss is cosmopolitan or anywhere, from the tropics to the tundra or pole.

Moss reproduction

Reproduction of mosses can be explained as follows:

  • How to reproduce mosses by producing spores
  • Vegetatively through eram buds and shoots
  • Generative reproduction by producing anteridium or producing spermatogonia and archegonium or producing ovum. Sperm move to the ovum by chememaxis due to the influence of sugars and proteins produced by archegonium.
  • The life cycle of hereditary change or metagenesis between vegetative and generative derivatives. Gamet-producing mosses are called gametophytes or the haploid phase. While moss-producing spores are called sporophytes or diploid phases. Gametophyte is more prominent than sporophyte. Gametophyte is a vegative derivative attached to the substrate using rhizoid or protonema. Sporophytes are generative derivatives of sporogonium-producing bodies.

The following is a chart of moss metagenesis as follows:

Moss classification

Moss or Bryophyta are classified based on their body structure as follows:

  • Liverworts or Hepaticeae or Hepaticopsoda. This type of moss has the following characteristics: its body is talus and has a rhizoid that has a function as a root, sporophyte growth is limited because it does not have mematematik tissue, habitat in humid places, breed generatively by oogamy while vegetative breeding is done by fragmentation, budding and eramic or gemma buds or budding. The examples of liverworts are as follows: Marchantia polymorpha which can be used as a drug for liver disease or hepatitis, Machantia germinata.
  • Leaf moss or Musci or Bryopsida. Leaf moss has the following characteristics: its body has a structure similar to stems, leaves, and roots or rhizoid, but does not have tissue or cells and functions like higher plants.

This collection of moss forms a vast expanse of green that has properties such as foam rubber so that it is able to absorb and hold water.

The next feature, has the characteristics of gametophyte which is divided into two levels, namely the protonema that is smooth and thread-shaped and gametophora in the form of mosses.

Sporophyte consists of legs, seta, and capsules, this moss has stems, leaves, and rhizoid. Spores consist of two layers, namely endospores and exospores, their habitat in moist areas.

Examples of leaf moss are as follows: Sphagnum fimbriatum which is used as peat soil formers, lives in acidic or brackish water, has the function of washing pests or pesticides and as a substitute for cotton or sanitary pads.

  • Hornworts or Anthoceropsids. Hornworts have the following characteristics: they are gametophyte in the form of a broad, thin thallus with a curved edge, rhizoid in the ventral section.

In addition, the body is similar to liverworts, but different in sporophyte. The sporophyte in this moss forms an elongated capsule that grows like a horn. This moss habitat in areas that have high humidity.

Based on the analysis of nucleic acids, it turns out that these mosses are the closest relatives to vascular or vascular plants compared to other classes of mosses. Example: Anthoceros leavis.

The benefits of moss for human life are as follows. Moss plants along with crust moss plants are pioneering vegetation. It is said so because these two plants can destroy rocks.

Crushed rocks become soil that can be used for other plants. Moss growing on the forest floor can withstand erosion, reduce flooding, and be able to absorb water so that it can cause water in the dry season.

Also see:  Definition of Growth and Germination in Plants

Nail Plants – Pakuan or Pteridophyta

Nail plants have a membership of approximately nine thousand species. Nails already have roots, stems, and leaves so they are called cormophytes. Plant ferns – ferns are higher compared to mosses.

Characteristics that are owned by nail plants are as follows

  • Macroscopic body size and some that reach twenty meters high.
  • The habitat of cosmolipite, is everywhere.
  • His way of life is saprophytic, epiphytic, and lives on land or water.
  • Its roots are fibers
  • The trunk has rhizoma and vascular, namely xylem and phloem
  • The leaves have microphils, macrophils or size, tropophyll, sporophyll or function
  • The young leaves curled up
  • Has a conveyance, concentric
  • Spores grow in the form of protalium
  • The metagenesis is dominant sporophyte
  • Nail plant chromosomes are diploid
  • The haploid phase includes spores, protalium, anteredium, archegonium, ovum, sperm
  • The diploid phase includes zygotes, ferns, sporophyll, sporangium.
  • Bipolar or bipolar embryos while single-pole or monopolar nail plants.
  • Plant ferns can grow well in a humid environment and there are several types of ferns that can live in water.

Nail Classification – Pakuan

The classification of nail plants based on the shape and size of the spores can be divided into the following:

  • Homospores nails have the same shape and size of spores. An example is Lycopodium calvatum
  • Heterospores have male or microspore spores and female or macropsora spores. Examples are Sellaginella wildenowii or nail rane and Marsilea crenata or clover.
  • Isospora nails or transitional have the same shape and size of spores, only most of which have female genitals. Examples are Equisetum debile or horsetail.

Nail plants also experience genetic rotation or metagenesis. In its life cycle the sporophyte phase is more dominant than the gametophyte phase. Nail plant gametophyte in the form of protalium.

Meanwhile, the sporophyte is in the form of a nail plant itself. The following is a metagenesis chart of homopora, transitional and heterospora ferns.




Furthermore, ferns can be classified into four classes, namely as follows:

  • Psilopytinae or psilopsida or ancient nails or naked nails, because most of the species are extinct. Named nails naked because they do not have leaves or small leaves, some are not true roots.

Most lived in ancient times and were found in fossil forms. An example is Psilotum nudum.

  • Equisetinae or Spenopsida or horsetail, where most of these species are extinct, the only species that exists is the Equisetaceae group namely Equisetum debile or horsetail. Horse tail spikes grow in the highlands.

The stems are like asparagus bamboo shoots or like pine leaves. In addition, the trunk is hollow, knotted and grows upright. The leaves are found in each book, are circular, and are in the form of scales, and are small or microphile.

The characteristics of this class are small, single, and circular leaves. Sporangium is found in strobilus or cones.

  • Lycopodinae or Lycopsida or hair nails. Characteristics of small leaves and arranged spirally, sporangium appear in the armpits of leaves and gather to form strobilus. The stem is like a wire. An example is Selaginella candate or rane nails. Selaginella is widely planted in pots or gardens. The total number of species is 1100 species.
  • Filicinae or ferns, have the most members. The examples are Adiatum cuneatum or suplir, Plathycerium sp or deer antlers, Marsilea creanata or clover, and Salvinia natans.

The use of nails – ferns

Nail plants have a role in human life, including:

  • Ornamental plants, including Adiantum or suplir, Selaginella, Asplenium Platycerium or deer antlers, Asplenium nidus or nest nails, and Selaginella wildenowii.
  • Medicinal ingredients, including Lycopodium clavatum, Aspidium filixmas, and Dryopteris filixmas.
  • Green fertilizers include, symbiotic Azolla pinata with Anabaena azollae.
  • Vegetables include Marsilea creanata or clover.
  • Protectors of peace plants, including Gleichenia linearis.
  • Nail plants that lived in the carbon age have fossilized. The fossil is in the form of coal which can be used as fuel.
  • Some are used to grow orchids, which are nails or Alsophilla glauca.


Spermatophyta is a plant that can produce seeds as a means of reproduction. Spermatophyta is called Anthophyta. Because it has flowers and is called Phanerogamia because it has clear genitals.

In addition, it is also called sifonogama Embrifita because plants have institutions and mating through pollen vessels or reeds.

The characteristics of the spermatophyta plant are as follows: it has true roots, stems and leaves complete with its transporting file or Trakheophyta, has a clear breeding tool

Then, reproduction is done by producing seeds which contain embryos, sporophyte generation in the form of plants and gametophyte generation in the form of flowers, the organ’s bladder is protected in the ovules.

Spermatophyta classification

Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are open-seeded plants, where the seeds will not be wrapped in fruit leaves, but will stick to the fruit leaves. The morphological characteristics of Gymnosperms are as follows:

  • Having taproots or fibers
  • The trunk is not branched or branched
  • Woody
  • Grow and move up
  • Narrow-leaf, thick and stiff, like a needle
  • The seeds are found in fruit leaves or macrosporophils
  • Pollen is in another part or microsporophile
  • The leaves of the producing fruits and pollen-producing bodies are separated from each of them, called the strobillus

While the anatomical features of Gymnosperms are as follows

  • The roots and stem are cambium
  • Its roots have kaliptra
  • The cambium stems have a floeterma or starch sheath, endodermis containing starch
  • Single fertilization interval between pollination and fertilization is relatively long
  • The transport file cannot function properly because it is still only in the form of tracheid.

The life cycle of the Merkussi pine, as follows

Furthermore, the generative reproductive organs are strobillus or conus or tip. Strobillus has sporophyte assemblages that form a cone-like or conical structure.

Strobillus can be divided into male strobillus and female strobillus. Male strobillus consists of microsporophils, which are composed of stem cells or microspores.

Microspora stem cells undergo meiosis producing four microspores. Furthermore, microspores will divide mitosis repeatedly into two, in the form of a network of male winged gametophyte called pollens.

Each pollen will contain generative cells and reed cells or vegetative cells. Generative cells will become sperm cells which process maturation in the burrow will be biki. Female strobillus, consisting of megasporophils or nuselus or macrosporophils that contain megaspora stem cells.

Megaspora stem cells divide by meiosis repeatedly into female gametophyte tissue. Female gametophyte tissue forms a bottle-shaped archegonium, which has an ovum at the base.

Gymnosperms can be classified into three classes, as follows:

  • Cycadinae class. This group of plants resembles a palm, but not a true palm which is a flowering plant, has open seeds present in sporophils, which are leaves that are specialized for reproduction. An example is Cycas rumphii or hajj fern.
  • Gynkoales class. This group of plants has fan-like leaves that turn golden and fall in autumn. This trait is an unusual trait possessed by Gymnosperms. For example, Ginkgo biloba is the only species that is still alive.
  • Coniferae class. This plant group has the largest species in Gymnosperms because it has a membership of 550 species. This plant has a reproductive tool in the form of conus.

Conus is a collection of sporophiles that resemble scales that are compacted to form conical buildings. Examples are Agathis alba or resin, Gingga biloba and Pinus merkusii.

Pine has needle-like leaves to adapt to a dry environment, a thick cuticle layer and the location of stomata located below the surface of the leaf which serves to reduce water loss.

  • Gnetinae class. Gnetales members are shrubs, lianas or climbing plants, and trees. Leaves face to face, with veins that pinnate like dicotyledonous plants.

In the xylem there is a trachea. Strobilus is not conical. Examples are Gnetum gnemon or mlinjo. Young leaves, flowers, and seeds can be vegetable mlinjo, seeds can be made chips, the skin can be used for mesh yarn or paper material, and food.

The role of Gymnosperms in human life is as follows:

  • The ingredients of the drugs are Pinus merkusi, Ependra sp, Juniperus sp, and Taxodium which can produce taxol, anticancer from bark, and Ginkgo biloba.
  • Ornamental plants include Cycas rumpii, Thuja and Cupessus.
  • Food ingredients, including Gnetum gnemon.
  • Industrial materials, such as resin resin or Agathis albis, pine stem of merkusii as paper material.

Angiosperms Angiosperms are a group of plants that have seeds covered by fruit flesh. The morphological features of the Angiosperge plant are as follows:

  • Single or compound leaves, flat leaf shape, width, and diverse leaf reinforcement.
  • True Komofita has roots, stems and leaves and has real flowers.
  • Double fertilization, embryo formation and endosperm in almost the same time.
  • The roots are taped or fibrous and the stem is branched or unbranched.
  • Seed will not appear, protected in fruit and pistil leaves.

The life cycle of Angiosperms is as follows

Furthermore, Angiosperms breeding tools in the form of flowers. Complete flowers are flowers consisting of groups of flowers, stamens, and pistils. Stamen or stamen consists of anthers or anthers and stems or filaments.

In the anthers there are sacs or microsporangium which contain microspores stem cells. Microspora stem cells and followed by mitotic division repeatedly and produce pollen for male gametophyte.

The pollen is wrapped by the outer membrane or eksin and the inner membrane or inner. In pollen there are generative nuclei and vegetative cells or pollen reed cells. The vegetative core will form pollen reeds and the generative core will form two sperm cells if fertilization occurs.

Pistil or pistilum consists of pistil or stigma, pistil or stylus, and ovaries. Fruit will be part of an enlarged pistil and is in the middle of the base of the flower in which there will be seeds or megasporangium.

In addition, there are megaspora stem cells or institutional biological stem cells which will divide in meiosis into four megaspora cells. Three cells degenerate, one cell develops into the nucleus of the primary institution.

Furthermore, mitosis will divide into two, one to the kalaza and the other to the microfil.

Arriving at the kalaza and microfil will divide mitotically twice so as to produce four biological nucleus cells. One core of the kalaza and microfil toward the middle will form the biological candidates for secondary institutions.

The three cell nuclei in the kalaza will then form atypodes. Meanwhile the cell in the middle in the antipode becomes an ovum and the clamp is called a synergid cell.

Angiosperms pollination is an event of pollen falling to the head of the pistil. Next, pollen germinates to form pollen reeds which begin with the breakdown of exin.

Then, elongate the diamond to the microfile guided by the vegetative core. The generative nucleus in the pollen reeds will divide into two sperm cells.

When sata touches the microfil, vegetative cells will degenerate to open the microfil and then one sperm enters the microfil to fertilize the ovum into a zygote.

Meanwhile, the two sperm fertilize candidates for secondary institutions become endopserm which has a function as food reserves. This fertilization takes place twice so it is called double fertilization.

After fertilization the zygote will grow into an embripe or institution that is embedded in the seeds. Based on the number of cotyledons, Angiosperms are divided into two, namely Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae. The differences in morphological and anatomical features can be explained as follows.

Monocotyledonae. The cotyledons consist of one chip, the root system is fibrous, has no cambium, the leaf bones are parallel or curved, the number of flower parts is a multiple of three, the seeds after germination remain intact, and have calipogen.

Dicotyledonae. The cotyledons consist of two pieces, a root system in the form of a tap, have cambium, the bones of the leaves are pinned or pinched, the number of flower parts is a multiple of four or five, the seeds after germination is split in half, and do not have calipogene.

Furthermore, the classification of plants belonging to the Monocotyledonae class is as follows:

  • Liliaceae, for example, Gloriosa superba or breech flower, Lilium longflorum or church lilies.
  • Poaceae or graminae or grasses. The examples are zea mays or corn and oryza sativa or rice, bambusa sp or bamboo.
  • Zingiberacaeae or ginger, for example zingiber officinale or ginger and alpina galanga or laos.
  • Amarylianceae, for example, agave centala or kantala, agave sisalana or sisal.
  • The example is the paradisiaca or banana, palm or phoenix.
  • Arecaceae or palmae. Examples include coccus nucifera or coconut, areca cathecu or areca nut.
  • For example, phalaeopsopsis amabilis or moon orchids, cattleya, dendrobium, phalaenopsis, arundina, vanda, epidendrum, laelia, oncidium, and vanilla or vanilla planifolia.
  • Araceae, for example, coloscasia esculenta or taro.
  • For example, magnolia grandiflora, arenaria, D. carophylus, agrostemma

Dicotyledoneae class, can be classified into several families, namely as follows:

  • For example, Mimosa Pudica or Princess Shy.
  • An example is hibiscus rosa-sinensis or hibiscus.
  • The example is durio zibberthinus or durian.
  • The example is monihot utilisima or cassava.
  • The example is morinda citrofolia or mengundu.
  • For example, plameria acuminata or frangipani.
  • The example is ipomea reptans or kale.
  • The example is phaseolus radiatus or green beans.
  • The example is caesalpinia pulcherima or peacock flower.
  • The example is Ficus elastica or rubber.
  • The example is citrus nobilis or tangerines.
  • The example is guajava psidium or guava stone.
  • The example is tectona grandis or teak.
  • The example is coleus tuberotus or black potatoes.
  • Brassica oleracea or cabbage, mustard greens or B. Rugosa, lobal or raphanus sativus, mustard greens or nasturtium heterophylum.
  • Leguminosae, for example, falmboyan or delonix regia, acacia or accacia farnesiana, peacock flower or caesalpinia pulcherrima.
  • The examples are deruju or celangkringan or argemone mexicana and papaver somniverum.
  • Examples include rose or rosa hybrida, apple or malus sylvestris, apricot or prunus armeniaca, P. domestica.

Thus the presentation of kingdom plantae. Hopefully this article can help you in understanding matters relating to the understanding, characteristics, and classification of kingdom plantae. Happy learning and always successful.

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