Mulberry cultivation is mainly done for the production of silk. Mulberry is considered as the indigenous plant of China. Mulberry plant is a multi-year plant. But its life is shorter than other older trees. In India, it is cultivated more in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Himachal, Haryana and Punjab.
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Mulberry is cultivated as a fruit in addition to silkworm rearing. Its fruits are used in many ways. In which juice, jelly and candy are made from its fruit juice. Medicinal properties are also found in its fruits. For this reason, it is also used in making many kinds of medicines.
Mulberry plants grow well during the rainy season at normal temperatures. Its plants do not grow in the winter season. While the summer season is suitable for the growth of its plants. Its plants are in general need of rain. And for the cultivation of this land, P.H. The value must also be normal.
If you too are planning to cultivate it, then today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Mulberry cultivation requires fertile land with proper drainage. It can also be grown in black smooth land by proper drainage. PH of land for its cultivation Values must be between 6 and 7.
Climate and temperature
The temperate climate is most suitable for mulberry cultivation. Its plants do not grow in the winter season. And frost in winter is harmful for this. While summer and rainy season is good for its plants. During this time its plants grow well. Its fruits are ripened and prepared in the summer season. Its plants need normal rainfall.
Initially, its plants require 20 to 25 degree temperature to grow. After that, when the plant becomes fully grown, then its plants can also tolerate maximum temperature of 40 and minimum of 4 degrees. But when the minimum temperature is maintained for a long time, the plants suffer damage.
There are many varieties of mulberry which are grown in different places.
This variety is also known as v-1. It is a hybrid of mulberry. Whose S-30 and plum. C-776 is prepared by hybridization. Its leaves are smooth, shiny and thick in shape. The branches and stems of this variety of plants appear brown in color. This type of plant is considered to be the best for silkworm rearing.
The stem of this variety of mulberry plants is brownish pink in color. Plants of this variety are useful for rearing young silkworms. Its leaves look smooth and glossy without any ends. Whose color appears greenish yellow. Moisture and nutrients are normally found in its leaves. Plants of this variety are of normal height.
This is a hybrid of mulberry which was prepared in the year 2000. Plants of this type grow quickly. Which spread to a lesser size. The leaves of this type of plant are large without ridges. Whose color appears dark green. And the branches of this variety of plants are pinkish brown.
Improved variety for sericulture
This variety of mulberry is also known as resource barrier 1. This hybrid variety of mulberry was prepared in 2005. This type of plant grows very fast. The branches of this variety are pink in color. The leaves of plants of this variety are shiny with a thick and thick shape. Whose color appears dark green.
This variety of mulberry was prepared in the year 2003 through hybridization of M. multicollis and S34. The leaves of this variety of plants are smooth, shiny and large in size. Whose color appears dark green. Plants of this variety are favorable for silkworm rearing.
Apart from these, there are many other varieties. Which are planted in different places for silk production.
Mulberry plants give yields for several years after planting once. Before planting its plants in the field, destroy the remnants of the old crops in the field and run them in the field and plow them well. After that, plow two to three diagonally through the cultivator of the field. After plowing with cultivator, make the soil brittle by running a rotavator in the field. After making the soil brittle, make the land flat by planting it in the field. So that during the rains, the problem of water filler is not faced in the field.
After preparing the field, pits are prepared in the field. While preparing these pits, the distance between each pits should be around 3 meters. While preparing the pits, prepare them in rows. During this time there should be a distance between two and a half to three meters between each line. After the pits are ready, organic and chemical fertilizers are mixed in the soil and filled in the pits. These pits are prepared about one month before planting.
Silk plants are prepared through root, branch and seed. To prepare the seedlings through seed, its seeds are treated and grown in a pro-tray in the nursery. After which they are developed by giving them proper amount of nutrients. When the plants become fully grown, then they are uprooted and planted in the fields.
Whereas, to prepare seedlings from roots and branches, cuttings of its branches are prepared and planted in the nursery. The length of branches should be around half fit during their cutting. To prepare the plants, the branches are dipped in routine hormones and planted in rows keeping a distance of about 6 inches in the nursery. After planting the cuttings in the nursery they give them proper amount of nutrients. Due to which the plant grows. In nursery, when its plant is about 6 months old, then it is planted in pits prepared in the fields.
Time and method of planting saplings
Mulberry saplings are planted in pits prepared in the field. During planting, another small pit in the middle of these pits is prepared and plants prepared in nursery are planted there. After planting the plants in pits, they cover their stems with an inch of soil.
Mulberry plants should be planted in the fields mostly during the rainy season. During this time it is appropriate to plant them in the month of June or July. Because during this time the weather remains pleasant. Therefore, germination of plants is not affected by the planting of plants at this time and the plants also grow well.
Irrigation of plants
Mulberry plants need more irrigation in the beginning. Its plants have a general need for water during the winter season. During this time, plants should be watered at an interval of 15 days. While in summer season, its plant needs more irrigation. Therefore, in summer season, its plants should be watered once a week. And in rainy season it is advisable to water its plant as per the requirement. Fully grown mulberry plants require general irrigation.
Amount of fertilizer
In mulberry cultivation, fertilizer is more than usual. Initially at the time of preparing the pits for its cultivation, about 15 to 20 kg of old cow dung manure and about 100 grams of NPK in the form of chemical fertilizer in each pit. Fill the quantity of soil in pits. This amount of fertilizer should be given to the plants for about three to four years.
When the plant is about five years old, the amount of fertilizer given to it should be increased. A fully grown plant should give 25 kg of organic and one kg of chemical fertilizer annually. With this, plants grow well.
Weed control in mulberry cultivation is done only through blue weeding. Mulching of mulberry plants should be done lightly in the beginning. So that there is no loss of any kind to the plant. The first hoeing of this plant should be done about 20 days after transplanting in the field. Five to seven hives of its plants are enough in a year.
Mulberry plants should be taken care of after planting in the field. After planting its plants in the fields, if no plant is known to sprout, then the vacant space is filled by replacing it with another plant.
When the mulberry plant is fully developed after planting in the field, the diseased and dried branches seen in them should be trimmed. Due to which new branches grow in plants. On which fresh leaves grow well.
Mulberry plants grow fully two to three years after planting in the field. During this time, farmers can grow vegetables, spices and medicinal crops in the remaining vacant land in the farm. Due to which the farmer brothers will also get the produce from their land. And they will not have to face any kind of financial troubles.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Many types of diseases are seen in mulberry plants. Which causes a lot of damage to its plants and leaves. Whose time is necessary to take care of them.
White spots disease
White spots disease in mulberry plants is a bacterial disease. On the onset of this disease, white spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves of the plants. Whose size increases as the disease progresses. When this disease grows, the leaves of the plants begin to yellow and fall prematurely. Due to which there are problems in rearing silkworm. For prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of Salfax 80 WP should be sprayed on the plants.
In mulberry plants, the effect of stem borer is seen due to pests. Larvae of insect of this disease make holes in the trunk and branches of plants and destroy them by eating them from inside. Due to which the plant stops growing. And when the disease progresses, the entire plant gets destroyed. To prevent this disease, put appropriate amount of Chlorpyriphos in the holes visible on the stem and close it with cotton or clay.
Bark eater Sundi
Bark eater Sundi
The bark eater Sundi disease caused by mulberry plants is an insect-borne disease. Sundi of this disease makes the plant’s bark and stem eat it weak. Due to which the plant stops growing. To prevent this disease, proper amount of monocrotophos or methyl parathion should be sprayed on the plants.
The effect of leaf scorching disease in mulberry plants is seen more with the change of seasons. Due to this disease, the leaves of plants start drying and yellowing from different places. Gradually, all the leaves start drying up and fall. Due to which the plant stops growing. To prevent this disease, appropriate amount of Baviston should be sprayed on the plants.
In mulberry plants, the effect of kungi disease is seen on the leaves of the plant. On the onset of this disease, reddish brown spots appear on the leaves of plants. Leaves appear yellow as the disease increases. And after some time, they fall apart from the plants and fall. For prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of Bavistin or Blitox should be sprayed on the plants.
Mulberry is mainly cultivated for its leaves. Which are used in silkworm rearing. Silkworms use its leaves as their food. Therefore, it is important to have nutrients in its leaves. For which fertilizer should be given in excess to its plants. After breaking its leaves, the silk pests are cut and prepared for food.
These leaves can also be used to make organic manure after eating silkworm. After 20 to 25 days of fertilizing mulberry plants, its leaves should be picked. In one hectare, 8 to 10 thousand kg of leaves are produced annually from its fully grown plants. From which 800 to 900 dfals. Pest rearing can be done.
Apart from leaves, mulberry is also cultivated for its fruit production. Its fruits appear dark red during ripening. After breaking, they are collected and sold in the market. To break its fruits, spread big clothes under its trees and then shake the tree, so that the ripe fruits fall apart. After breaking its fruits, wash them with cold water and send them to market.
Yields and benefits
Mulberry plants are cultivated for the use of its leaves. From which silk is produced. For this reason, farmer brothers can earn a good income by following silkworm from its cultivation. Apart from this, farmers make a good income by selling its fruits in the market. Farmers can take silk to produce silk three to four times a year.