Melon is cultivated as a cash crop. Melon is counted in pumpkin class crops. Its plants spread in the form of creeper and develop themselves. Melon fruit is used in food which is very tasty. In food, it is eaten as a juice and as a straight salad. Eating this during summer season is very beneficial for human body. And its seeds are used in sweets.
Table of Contents
Melon cultivation requires a warm and humid climate. Therefore, it is grown before the rainy season. In India, it is mainly cultivated in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Haryana, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. Melon plants need summer to grow. Its plants normally require rain. Its cultivation gives less production and more production in time. Due to which melon cultivation is considered beneficial for farmers.
If you also want to earn good profit by cultivating it, then today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Fertile land with proper drainage is required for melon cultivation. But to get more production, it should be grown in light sandy loam soil. Waterlogged land is not considered useful for its cultivation. Because it damages both its plants and fruits. PH of land for its cultivation Values must be between 6 and 7.
Climate and temperature
Melon is cultivated in Zayed season. During this time, its plant needs warm and humid weather. Plants grow well when water supply is kept in plants during summer season. The winter season is not considered suitable for its cultivation. The rainy season is suitable for its cultivation. But there should not be much rain during flowering and fruit formation on the plant. During this time, due to excess rain, its yield is spoiled. Whereas during the ripening of the fruit, the moisture content in the fruit is enhanced by the movement of moisture-rich winds in the hot season.
Melon seeds need a temperature around 25 degrees to germinate in the beginning. After that, its plants grow easily at temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees. But a temperature between 25 to 30 degrees is considered suitable for best yields.
Many advanced varieties of melons exist. Which are grown at different times to get the yield.
This variety of melons has been prepared by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. This variety of melon is applied to obtain early yields. The fruit of which appears light brown and reticular from outside. While the inside is light orange in color. There is a high quantity of pulp in this type of fruits. It tastes very sweet. The fruits of this variety are ripened after 115 days of transplanting. The yield per hectare of this variety is found to be around 250 kwh.
This variety of melon is grown as an early crop. The fruits of which are ripened after two and a half months. This variety of melons has been prepared by Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Whose production per hectare is found to be between 200 and 250 quintals. The skin of this type of fruit is thin. On which the stripes are made. The color of its fruit appears red from outside. While the inside is light orange.
These are a hybrid variety of melons. The agricultural research center Durgapura, Jaipur has been prepared by hybridization of Durgapura Madhu and Pusa Madhuras. This variety has been prepared to give yields in the medium time. Plants of this variety produce three months after transplanting. Whose production per hectare is found to be around 200 quintals. The fruits of this variety appear flat and light greenish-yellow in color. Whose pulp is light green from inside. The fruits of this variety are sweeter than many other varieties. The amount of sweetness is found in its fruits up to 16 percent.
This variety of melons is grown more in central India. Fruits of this variety appear pale yellow on the outside. In which the quantity of kidney and seeds are less. The fruits of this variety appear to be slightly elongated oval. There is less sweetness in fruits of this variety. The fruit starts ripening after one month of flowering on this type of plant. Whose production per hectare is found to be around 250 quintals.
Sea 60 F1
This is a hybrid of watermelon. Which are grown more in Gujarat. Plants of this type start yielding about three months after transplanting. The skin of this type of fruit is very thin. Stripes are seen on this type of fruit. The outer color of its fruits is mostly greenish yellow. The fruits of this variety are quite sweet in taste. Whose production per hectare is found to be between 230 and 270 quintals.
This is a hybrid of melons. Which Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi has prepared by hybridizing with an American variety. This variety of melon is grown to obtain early yields. This variety is grown in river banks in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. Green stripes are made on this type of fruit. The skin of this type of fruit is thick. In its fruits, the quantity of pudding is high and the quantity of seed is found less. The quantity of sweetness in fruits of this variety is found to be normal like other varieties.
This variety of melons has been prepared by the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka for early yield. This type of fruit can be easily transported far. Because the anus of its fruits is solid. The color of its rectum appears white. Powdery mildew is rarely seen on fruits of this type. Its fruits appear round oval. In which the amount of sweetness is found more. The production per hectare of this variety is found around 260 quintals.
This variety of melons, prepared by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, is grown to obtain late yields. Green and white stripes are made on the fruits of this variety. The anus of this type of fruit is also found green. The quantity of sweetness is found in its rectum. In this type of fruit, the disease of pulverized ashita and mriduromil asita is quite rare. The production per hectare of this variety of plants is found around 200 kintal.
Apart from these, there are many other varieties, which the farmer brothers grow at different times to get the best yields. Pusa Rasraj, Narendra Kharbuja 1, MH 10, Durgapura Madhu, M.H.Y. 5, Hisar Madhur Sona, MH 51, Arco Jeet, Swarna, Pusa Madhuras, Punjab M. 3, M-4, Punjab Hybrid and R.K. N. There are many varieties like 50.
For the cultivation of melons, the soil must be clean and brittle. For its cultivation, the residue of the old crop present in the field should be destroyed. After that, after plowing the soil of the field twice by plunging the soil twice, leave the field open for a few days. For deep plowing of the field use Palau or Tava plows.
After that, again run the cultivator and plow the field two to three diagonally. After that, by running the rotavator, eliminate all the types of molds in the soil and make the soil brittle. After making the soil brittle, make the land level by running the floor in the field. So that during the rains, there is no water filling in the field. After that the appropriate size beds are prepared according to the planting of the crop.
Melon transplanting is done in two ways by leveling the ground and digging the drain in the ground. To do cultivation on flat land, initially make a dhrenuma bed by keeping a distance of 10 to 15 feet on the surface of the land. Whereas, for making a drain in the ground, one to one and half fit width and half fit depth drain is prepared in the ground. After that put appropriate amount of organic manure and chemical fertilizer in these beds and drains and mix it well in the soil. This process of making beds and sewers is done about 20 days before planting seeds in the fields.
Seed Volume and Treatment
One to one and a half kilos of seeds are required for normal and intensive sowing per hectare of melon cultivation. Its seeds should be treated before planting. Captan or Thiram drug should be used to treat its seeds. By treating the seeds, they do not get the initial disease and germination of the seeds is also good.
Seed Transplant Method and Time
Melon cultivation can be done both in seed and plant manner. It is very difficult to prepare and grow its plants. That’s why mango farmers grow it only through seeds. While growing through seeds, they are applied on both sides in the dhrenuma beds and drains prepared in the field. During this time, the distance between the seeds should be around two feet. Two seeds should be planted in one place. They should be planted at a depth of two to three centimeters while planting seeds.
Apart from this, the farmer brother who wants to cultivate it with drip irrigation method, should make it in a zigzag manner by making the beds raised above the level in the field. During planting in this manner, its vine is allowed to spread in the air with the help of ropes after transplanting to the boss in the field.
Melon plants are planted in different places depending on the season. Transplanting of its plants in the plains is good in the month of February. Whereas in the hilly areas where there is more snow, farmer brothers can easily grow it in April and May. Whereas in the coastal areas it should be planted in the month of October.
Irrigation of plants
Melon plants need more irrigation. The first irrigation of its plants should be done immediately after planting the seeds. After that, till the germination of seeds, light irrigation should be done to maintain moisture in the field. After germination of plants they need moisture to grow. Therefore, during the growth of plants, they must be watered once a week. And when the fruits on the plant are fully formed, then they should stop watering. By this, the fruit ripens well and the sweetness of fruits is also high.
Its plants do not need water during farming in the riverbank. Because by cultivating it along the river, the roots of its plant easily mourn the water from the ground. But during this time, when there is a shortage of water in the plants, they should be given water as per the requirement.
Amount of fertilizer
Fertilizer is needed to grow melon plants like other pumpkin-class crops. For this, at the time of preparation of the field, mix about 200 to 250 kV Purani cow dung as organic fertilizer at the rate of per hectare and put it in the prepared drains or dhrenuma beds in the field and mix it well in the soil.
Apart from this, about 30 kg of nitrogen, 60 kg of phosphorus and 40 kg of potash should be added to the drains at the rate of per hectare as chemical fertilizer. Apart from this, at the rate of about 20 kg urea per hectare, they should be given 15 days before flowering on the plants.
Weed control is very important in melon cultivation. Because its plants spread on the surface of the land and grow. Due to which weeds in the field cause damage to both its plants and fruits. In its cultivation it is good to control the weed in a natural way.
For this, in the beginning about 15 to 20 after transplanting plants should be lightly weeded. Melon plant requires two to three hoeing. After the first planting of its plant, the rest should be done at an interval of 10 days. Apart from this, the farmer brother wants to control the weed in chemical way. Before planting the seeds, sprinkle the appropriate amount of butachlor in the ground. Due to this the weeds in the field cannot take birth.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Many types of diseases are seen in the melon plant. The crop can be saved from spoilage by stopping it at the appropriate time.
In melon farming, leaf scorching spreads due to fungus. The effect of this disease on plants is visible during the change in weather. Small, round, brownish-yellow spots appear on the leaves of plants at the beginning of this disease. Whose size increases in the event of disease. And the leaves start appearing dry. For prevention of this disease, seeds should be mixed by mixing 2 grams of Carbendazim with one kg during transplanting of seeds. Apart from this, spraying of appropriate amount of Mancozeb or Carbendazim should be done on the plants at an interval of 10 to 15 days.
This is a pest disease on melon plants. The effect of which is more humid and seen more during summer. Pests of this disease suck the soft parts of the plant and destroy them. Pests of this disease appear greenish yellow and black. Those which are small in size and they appear as flocks on plants. To prevent this disease, proper amount of thymathoxam should be sprayed on the plant.
Pests of red beetles appear orange in color. On which black and white spots appear. The larvae of the insect of this disease cause more damage to the stem and roots of the plant. While its insects eat the leaves of the plant and harm them. If this disease occurs, spraying of Amamactin or Carbaryl should be done on the plant. Whereas, for the prevention of its larvae found in soil, appropriate amount of chlorpyriphos should be given to the plants with irrigation.
White fly disease is mostly seen on the pumpkin class crop. The pests of this disease remain agile on the lower surface of the leaves. Due to which the leaves are yellow and destroyed. And the plant stops growing. For prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of imidacloprid or endosulfan should be sprayed on the plant.
Due to the occurrence of this disease, tunnel-like shapes appear in the leaves of the plant. Whose color appears light brown and transparent. When the disease progresses, the entire leaves begin to appear transparent. Due to which the plant stops performing photosynthesis. And the growth of the plant stops. For prevention of this disease, appropriate amount of Abamectin should be sprayed on the plants.
These diseases spread on melon plants spread due to fungus. In the beginning of this disease, white colored spots appear on the leaves of the plant. As the disease progresses, white colored powder accumulates on the leaves of the plants. Due to which plants stop the process of photosynthesis. For the prevention of this disease, 20 grams of soluble sulfur should be mixed with about 10 liters of water on the plants and sprayed in the plants two to three times in an interval of 10 days. Apart from this, spraying the appropriate amount of hexaconazole or myclobutanil is also good.
In melon farming, the effect of Sunda disease is seen on the leaves of plants. This is a pest disease on plants. Whose color of green appears yellow. The Sundi of this disease slowly eats the leaves of the plant and destroys them. Due to which the plant is not able to grow well. To prevent this, chloropyrifas should be sprayed on the plant.
The fruit thawing disease that occurs in melon plants is also known as Fruit Sudden. In melon farming, the effect of fruit thawing disease is seen on its fruits. Due to this disease, the melon fruits rot and spoil. On plants, this disease is visible when the soil remains in excess moisture. Apart from this, the fruit spreads from the same place even when it is attached to the ground. To prevent this disease, do not let the water fill in the field. Apart from this, the condition of fruits should be changed in two to three days interval.
Plants of different varieties of melons are ready for harvesting after 80 to 90 days of planting seeds. Its ripe fruit can be detected by looking at the color, shape and stalk of the fruit. After ripening of its fruit, it starts appearing around the stalk and the stalk starts to dry. Apart from this, after the ripening, there is a special fragrance in its fruits. During this time, its fruits should be chopped. To sell in the nearest market, you should pluck its full ripe fruits. Whereas to send the fruit at a greater distance, it should be separated by chopping its less ripe fruits. After harvesting the fruits, keeping them in a cool place can also be stored for a few days.
Yields and benefits
The average yield per hectare of different varieties of melon plants is found to be around 200 to 250 kwh. While the market price of its fruits is found around Rs 20 per kg. According to which the farmer brother can easily earn from one hectare to four lakhs at a time.