Consumer Behavior: Understanding, Types, and Factors That Influence

What is meant by consumer behavior ? Understanding consumer behavior is a process or activity when someone searches, selects, purchases, uses, and evaluates a product (goods or services) to meet their needs or desires.

Each buyer usually has a consideration before deciding to make a purchase transaction for a product. Consumer behavior is the basis for a consumer in making purchasing decisions for certain products (goods or services).

Price is one of the determinants of consumer decisions, where products with low selling prices are easier to make decision processes than consumers with high-priced products. In addition, product quality, usability, and various other things are also taken into consideration for a consumer before deciding to buy.

Also read: Consumer Definition

Consumer Behavior According to Experts

In order to better understand what is meant by consumer behavior, we can refer to the opinions of the following experts:

1. Schiffman and Kanuk

According to Schiffman and Kanuk, understanding consumer behavior is a process that is passed by a consumer in searching, buying, using, evaluating and acting on the consumption of goods and services, as well as ideas that are expected to meet the needs of that person.

2. Mowen

According to Mowen, understanding consumer behavior is an activity when someone gets, consumes or disposes of a product (goods or services) during the purchase process.

3. Engel, Blackwell and Miniard

According to Engel, Blackwell and Miniard, the understanding of consumer behavior is a variety of actions towards products and services, including the decision process that begins and follows the purchase action. The action is carried out by being directly involved in the process of obtaining, consuming, disposing of a product (goods or services).

4. The American Marketing Association

According to The American Marketing Association, consumer behavior is the process of dividing the dynamic interactions of influence and awareness, behavior and environment, where a person exchanges aspects of life.

Also read: Definition of consumption

Types of Consumer Behavior

Rational consumers buy products based on needs

In general, there are two types of consumers, namely rational consumers and irrational consumers. Both have certain characteristics that make them easily recognizable.

1. Rational Consumers

Consumers who expose various aspects of consumers in general, such as; primary needs, urgent needs, and product usability for these consumers. Here are the characteristics of rational consumers:

  • Rational consumers only buy a product based on their needs, not based on desires.
  • Products purchased by consumers provide optimal use for him.
  • These consumers only buy products that are guaranteed quality and quality.
  • These consumers generally buy a product whose price is in accordance with their financial capabilities.

2. Irrational Consumers

Consumers who are easily persuaded by the lure of price discounts, or other marketing strategies of a product without prioritizing aspects of the needs or usefulness of the product for him. Here are the characteristics of irrational consumers:

  • Irrational consumers are very easily influenced by advertisements and promotions in various media.
  • These consumers tend to choose goods based on brand popularity, not based on their usefulness.
  • Usually these consumers tend to buy goods because of prestige or prestige, not based on their needs.

Also read: Economic Motives

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior

Family is one of the factors that influence consumer behavior

In general, there are two factors that influence consumer behavior , namely internal factors and external factors. The following explanation;

I. Internal Factors

Internal factors are factors that originate from within the consumer, including;

  1. Motivation, which is an activity in a person that drives his desire to carry out certain activities to achieve certain goals.
  2. Economy, namely the economic or financial condition of a person that influences his behavior in making the decision to buy a product.
  3. Attitudes, namely behaviors or responses to stimuli from the environment that can guide or direct the actions of the person.

II. External Factors

External factors are various factors that originate from the environment of the consumer, including;

  1. Culture, that is, everything related to reason and human reason, which is manifested in the form of complex symbols and facts and passed down from generation to generation.
  2. Social groups and reference groups, social groups are social entities where individuals interact with each other, while reference groups are social groups that are the size of individuals in shaping personality and behavior.
  3. Family, which is the smallest social institution consisting of father, mother, and children who live together.

Also read: Social Institutions

That’s a brief explanation of the understanding of consumer behavior, types, and various invoices that affect it. Hopefully this article is useful and broadens your horizons.


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