The post What Are Different Parts Of Newspapers For Readers appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>The news, in a specific way, has a clear, precise and objective language, since it is information and, therefore, everything that is reported needs to be clear, so that the message is conveyed properly. . How about we now know a little more about the parts that make up this genre?

*** The headline or main title –**

** It is usually made up of short, catchy phrases, and reveals the main subject that will be pictured below.**

* Auxiliary Title –

** Its function is to complement the main title by adding just a few more information. **

* The cope (this term derives from an English word – *lead* ) – I

**n this part we need to find all the necessary information to answer the following questions: Where did the fact happen? With whom?What happened? When? As? Because? What was the subject? **

* Body of the news –

**In it, there is a greater detail of the facts, in order to highlight the most important details, fundamental to the understanding of the interlocutor. **

Classification of contents. Diversified as are the contents of a typical daily paper, they may be grouped in seven classes: (1) news stories; (2) special feature articles; (3) editorials; (4) dramatic, musical, and literary criticism; (5) practical advice and useful information; (6) humorous matter; (7) fiction. Of these seven classes, the first four news stories, special feature articles, editorials, and dramatic, musical, and literary criticism are generally considered to be the distinctly journalistic types of writing.

The news section is found when opening a newspaper. Its main purpose is to present the current news to the public.The first page is one of the most significant parts of a newspaper. In it you can see a summary of the most important news, some stories related to the local community, the state or national and international events.

You can find photo reports in the news section. These are responsible for creating images that can support the development of an event. In the case of newspapers, photographic reports are composed of still images.Photos included in any news story must have a caption at the bottom.

The entertainment section of a newspaper includes information and articles focused on different cultural aspects. You can find reports related to stories of human interest, in which social interaction between individuals is discussed from an emotional perspective.In this section, current cultural events are presented, people’s social problems, concerns and achievements are dealt with in a way that attracts readers’ interest and sympathy.This is where you will find information related to famous people or popular culture. You can see the billboard of theaters, find the horoscope, advice columns or different games like crossword puzzles or soups.

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]]>The post How News Is Written In Newspaper;5 Steps You Must Know appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>- It allows us to keep informed of events that affect the life of society, such as; diseases, new policies, specific care in adverse situations, etc.
- The news reports on news that can help us improve our quality of life.
- They generate reliable information for decision making, mainly when it is based on future expectations such as investment.
- It allows creating new products by using technology to solve the problems of daily life.
- Generates knowledge by pointing out points that may be unknown, if the news is not explained by the viewer, it is advisable that he investigate it on his own.

After the reporter has obtained the news, he returns to the office and writes his story as rapidly as possible, in accordance with any instructions that the city editor may give him. If it is inexpedient for him to return to the office, he writes his story quickly at some convenient place and sends it to the office by messenger or by telephone. Under some circumstances, particularly when lack of time prevents his writing the story and sending it in, he telephones the facts to a rewrite man in the office, who writes the story from the data thus secured. The reporter for a local news association prepares his stories, as directed by the news editor of the association, under practically the same conditions as the newspaper reporter.

The correspondent, after writing his story, mails it, files it at the telegraph office, or telephones it to the newspaper office. He, too, may telephone the bare facts to have them written in news-story form by a rewrite man in the newspaper office. The correspondent of a general news-gathering agency handles his news in the same way except that he sends it by mail, telegraph, or telephone to the district office of the association or agency that he represents. At this district office it is edited and sent out to those papers in various parts of the country that use the association’s service. As news stories, whether local or telegraph, are edited before they are printed, practically all stories as they appear in the newspaper are the work not only of the reporter or correspondent who gathered the news, but of one or more editors and copy-readers. Well-written stories of reporters and cor- respondents usually undergo little change when edited. A poorly written story, on the other hand, may be made over into a very effective one by a rewrite man, an editor, or a copy-reader.

**Conditions affecting news writing.**

The structure and the style of news stories are determined (1) by the conditions under which they are written, (2) by the character of the readers, (3) by the conditions under which news- papers are read, (4) by the typographical form of newspapers, and (5) by the popular taste.

**TYPES OF NEWS WRITING.**

Newspaper writing must be done rapidly under considerable pressure and generally without opportunity for careful revision. Although this haste does not excuse incorrect and slovenly English, it does result in looser, less finished waiting than might be produced under more favorable circumstances. In rapid writing, and particularly in handling similar material from day to day, the writer, unless he is on his guard, is likely to fall into the habit of using stock phrases, trite and colorless. The large amount of available news that must be crowded daily into limited space makes it essential to present the news in compact form and concise style. “Boil it down” and “Cut it to the bone” are constant ad- monitions in every newspaper office.

Conciseness is a necessary quality of newspaper style. The average newspaper, in order to succeed, must appeal to all classes of readers in the community. It must present its contents in a way that will attract and interest the so-called masses as well as the business and the professional classes. The style of writing is generally adapted to readers of limited education no less than to the well educated. Comparative simplicity of expression, accordingly, is the rule in newspaper writing. Newspapers are read rapidly by practically all classes of readers. They must, therefore, be written in a style that makes rapid reading easy.

Important details are placed at the beginning of paragraphs and sentences, where they will catch the eye at once. The emphasis thus given by the initial position is one of the distinctive characteristics of newspaper writing. To the most important details made prominent in this way are added the less significant but necessary particulars, one by one, in natural order. This arrangement results in a loose rather than a periodic sentence structure and eliminates the possibility of a climactic effect in the paragraphs or in the whole story.

The shortness of the line in the narrow column affects newspaper style because it necessitates a proportionate shortening of the paragraph. Para- graphs that appear long seem heavy and uninviting, especially to the rapid reader. Since but six words on an average can be crowded into a line in news- papers, as compared to ten or twelve in a line in most books, newspaper para- graphs can be only half as long as those in ordinary prose without loss of effectiveness. The popular demand for novelty and variety prevents any form of news- paper writing from becoming fixed, and results from time to time in the development of new forms and new styles of news writing.

To make some news stories entertaining rather than purely informative, a number of newspapers NEWS WRITING abandon the conventional summary beginning, or lead, and use unconventional ones like the beginnings of short stories. They likewise give prominence to trivial happenings worked up into so-called “human interest” or “feature” stories, because in that form they make entertaining reading.

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]]>The post What Are 10 Characteristics of News In News Writing appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>Characteristics of News are being described here. News is a textual genre, and its primary purpose is to let the reader and viewer be informed. The report consists of a headline, auxiliary title, deal and the text itself.

The constituent elements of the news text are as follows:

**Headline or main title**– Generally is written very clearly, to draw the reader’s attention.**Auxiliary title**– It serves as a complement to the main one, with the addition of some information, to make it even more striking to the reader.**Lide (**– Corresponds to the first paragraph and in it are exposed the information that most arouse the attention of the reader to continue reading the text. Try to answer the questions: Who? At where? What? As? When? Because?. This strategy is widely used in newspapers due to its informative nature and to be able to take quick and clear information to the reader.*lead*)**News body**– This is the information itself, with a more detailed exposition of the events mentioned. After bringing the most important information in the first paragraph, the following paragraphs present the other events always in descending order of relevance. The information really needed to understand the facts – such as the characters, space, and time – are prioritized.

News writing has come to have certain well-marked characteristics. It must be

(1) concise,

(2) clear,

(3) comparatively simple,

(4) easily read, and

(5) attractive to all classes.

Conciseness requires that needless words be omitted, that only such details be given as are necessary for effective presentation of the subject, and that the length of the story be proportionate to the importance of the material.

In order to be concise, however, news writing does not have to be bald and unattractive. Clearness is secured in journalistic style by comparative simplicity of diction, of sentence construction, and of paragraph structure. Learned diction, elaborate figures of speech, and involved sentences have no place in news writing intended to appeal to all classes of readers.

To be attractive to the average rapid reader, newspaper-style must be easy to read. It is made easy, as has been pointed out, by placing the important points in conspicuous positions at the beginnings of sentences and paragraphs. To satisfy the popular taste, newspaper writing must also be interesting in form and in style. It sometimes adopts the more or less striking devices of fiction in order to add to its effectiveness. Furthermore, attractiveness is secured by such typographical means as the use of a frame, or “box,” and bold-face type, for facts of especial importance.

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]]>The post What Is Academic Dress;Why We Need To Wear Academic Dress? appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>The cappa was the simplest of the toga-like clerical gowns and, therefore, the least costly and most appropriate for “clerks,” or clerical students. Initially, gown colors indicated ecclesiastical rank or a particular order. As in today’s Roman Catholic Church, scholars and lesser clergy wore black; bishops and monsignors, purple; cardinals, red; and the pope wore white.

The colors themselves were symbolic of various elements of the passion of Christ — red being a symbol of Christ’s blood, and so on. Only higher level clergymen wore birettas, whose colors also indicated a clergyman’s rank. Under agreements between church and crown, the distinctive clerical dress rendered all wearers personally inviolable and immune from secular courts.

In the mid-14th century, some individual colleges and universities began to adopt cappas with distinctive shapes and colors. Doctors in the superior faculties also adopted distinctive colors. The materials from which cappas were made varied according to temperature and sea- son. Because scholars were forbidden to wear birettas, they used fur “hoods” to cover their heads in winters and wore tippets, or long black scarves, over their robes to keep warm.

With the gradual secularization of universities in the 16th and 17th centuries, baccalaureate and then undergraduate scholars began wearing birettas, and hoods gradually disappeared. Today’s academic hood is actually a variation of the tippet. Its color varies according to the wearer’s degree and college or university.

No longer restricted to college and university students, academicals are worn by graduating students at all levels of education, including even elementary school students in some communities. The biretta’s shape was changed to that of a “mortar board” in the 19th century to reduce the complexity and cost of manufacturing by standardizing the shape and size of the upper part of the headpiece.

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]]>The post Accountability:What is it?Concept And Keys To Be More Responsible appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>At the student level, accountability is usually taught through “cooperative learning,” in which students are divided into several groups. Each group is then responsible for one element of a large project that can only be completed if each fulfills its responsibility. Thus, students are not only accountable to their teacher, they are accountable to their peers, who can often exert far more influence than teachers.

Teacher and school accountability is a relatively new concept that developed in the 1960s, as basic skills test scores of public school students began declining across the United States. The decline coincided with a deterioration of the American balance of international trade. As a torrent of lower priced, better quality products from Japan and West Germany displaced American products from the market, American industry blamed American public schools and their teachers for failing to teach future workers.

The accountability is considered **a quality and a value of the human being** . It is a positive characteristic of people who are capable of doing right things.In a society, people are expected to act responsibly, exercising their rights and fulfilling their obligations as citizens. In many cases, **the responsibility and **accountability **obeys ethical and moral issues.**

Some examples of corporate social responsibility can be:

- Distribute the profits equally.
- Take measures against climatic modifications.
- Working against corruption .
- Avoid pollution , excessive generation of waste and make reasonable use of energy and natural resources .
- Pursue the continuity of the company.
- Check the health and work conditions of the workers.
- Implement forms of collaboration and association of companies.
- Provide citizens with useful objects.

Being responsible brings us many benefits. It can help you achieve your goals and goals in any area of your life. Responsibility allows you to create values and helps you to direct the reins of your life. Being a responsible person helps us:

**Be more honest:**When we tend to tell the truth, and keep our promises, the people around us will believe us and they will see us as an honest person.**Be more autonomous:**Assuming the consequences of our actions, will help us to decide better.**Being more reliable people:**Being responsible, we gain the trust of others. But what is more important, we will also gain confidence in ourselves. Doing the right thing will make us feel good. And although we are wrong, we will be satisfied because we know that we have done the best we could.

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]]>The post Concept and Applications of Arithmetic In Basic Mathematics appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>- You go to the store to buy something, and you see in the need to calculate by means of a subtraction, the change that the shopkeeper will give.
- When you are about to approach the public service and how quickly the amount of money needed to pay the value of the ticket.
- also when you do the account or inventory of your things.

Formal arithmetic education usually begins in kindergarten and is completed by the end of fourth grade, and it is normally integrated with other subjects such as science, history and literature by teaching students to tell time, learn dates and solve story problems with numbers. Kindergartners usually learn to count from one to twenty, forwards and backwards and to pick up the count from any number.

They also learn comparative concepts such as larger than smaller than and to add and subtract numbers up to five. Most kindergartners also learn the use of balance scales, measuring instruments and pattern blocks,plastic cubes, pumpkin seeds, acorns and other materials for weighing, counting, comparing, sorting and understanding that written and spoken numbers are conceptually the same as the equivalent number of objects.

**First grade arithmetic** progresses to include the following: counting forward and backward from 1 to 100; skip counting by twos, fives and tens; instant identification of numbers before and after any number from 1 to 100, the concept of place values; simple addition and sub- traction of all single- and double-digit numbers; recognition of the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction; the use of the equality sign (=); the concept of fractions as parts of a whole; and the use of numbers in daily life to measure money, time, capacity, weight and temperature. First graders also extend their learning beyond arithmetic into other branches of mathematics by learning to recognize two- dimensional geometric figures.

**In second grade**, students learn to master numeration to 1,000 — adding and subtracting three single- and two-digit numbers and “rounding off” to the nearest ten or hundred. The standard curriculum also includes counting by odd and even numbers and to 1,000 by twos, threes, fives and tens. Measurement skills include mastery of money, time and the calendar.

**Third graders** progress to mastery of the multiplication tables through 12. They also learn to add and subtract four- and five-digit numbers, to multiply or divide two- and three- digit numbers by single-digit multiplicands and divisors and to recognize the inverse relation- ship between multiplication and division. Calculation skills also include mastery of fractions, decimals and the ability to convert from one to the other.

**What Are The Natural Numbers?**

Natural number, which serves to designate the number of elements that have a certain set, and is called cardinal of said set.The natural numbers are infinite. The set of all of them is designated by N:

N = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …, 10, 11, 12, …}

**Properties of the addition of Natural Numbers**

The addition of natural numbers fulfills the properties associative, commutative and neutral element.

1.- Associative:

If a, b, c are any natural numbers, it follows that:

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

For example:

(7 + 4) + 5 = 11 + 5 = 16

7 + (4 + 5) = 7 + 9 = 16

The results coincide, that is,

(7 + 4) + 5 = 7 + (4 + 5)

2.-Commutative

If a, b are any natural numbers, it follows that:

a + b = b + a

In particular, for numbers 7 and 4, it is verified that:

7 + 4 = 4 + 7

Thanks to the associative and commutative properties of the addition, long sums of natural numbers can be made without using parentheses and without taking into account the order.

3.- Neutral element

The 0 is the neutral element of the sum of integers because, whatever the natural number a, it is fulfilled that:

a + 0 = a

**Properties of the Multiplication of Natural Numbers**

The multiplication of natural numbers fulfills the associative, commutative, neutral and distributive properties of the product with respect to addition.

1.-Associative

If a, b, c are any natural numbers, it follows that:

(a · b) · c = a · (b · c)

For example:

(3 · 5) · 2 = 15 · 2 = 30

3 · (5 · 2) = 3 · 10 = 30

The results coincide, that is,

(3 · 5) · 2 = 3 · (5 · 2)

2.- Commutative

If a, b are any natural numbers, it follows that:

a · b = b · a

For example:

5 · 8 = 8 · 5 = 40

3.-Neutral element

The 1 is the neutral element of the multiplication because, whatever the natural number a, it is fulfilled that:

a · 1 = a

4.- Distributive of the product with respect to the sum

If a, b, c are any natural numbers, it follows that:

a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c

For example:

5 · (3 + 8) = 5 · 11 = 55

5 · 3 + 5 · 8 = 15 + 40 = 55

The results coincide, that is,

5 · (3 + 8) = 5 · 3 + 5 · 8

**Properties of the Subtraction of Natural Numbers**

Like the sum the subtraction is an operation that is derived from the counting operation.

If we have 6 sheep and the wolves eat 2 sheep, how many sheep do we have? One way of doing this would be to recount all the sheep, but someone who had told the same case several times would remember the result and would not need to count the sheep again. I would know that 6 – 2 = 4.

The terms of the subtraction are called minuendo (the sheep that we have) and subtracted (the sheep that were eaten by the wolves).Subtraction properties:

Subtraction does not have the commutative property (it is not the same a – b as b – a)

**Properties of the Division of Natural Numbers**

The division is the operation that we have to do to distribute a number of things among a number of people.

The terms of the division are called dividends (the number of things), divisor (the number of people), quotient (the number that corresponds to each person) and rest (what is left over).

If the rest is zero, the division is called exact and otherwise inaccurate.

The division does not have the commutative property. It is not the same a / b as b / a.

Integer, any element of the set formed by the natural numbers and their opposites. The set of integers is designated by Z:

Z = {…, -11, -10, …, -2, -1, -0, 1, 2, …, 10, 11, …}

Negative numbers allow you to count new types of amounts (such as debit balances) and order above or below a certain reference item (temperatures above or below 0 degrees, the floors of a building above or below the entrance to it …).

It is called the absolute value of an integer a, a natural number that is designated | a | and that is equal to one’s own if it is positive or zero, and -a if it is negative. That is to say:

• if a> 0, | a | = a; for example, | 5 | = 5; • if a <0, | a | = -a; for example, | -5 | = – (- 5) = 5.

The absolute value of a number is, therefore, always positive.

The addition, subtraction and multiplication operations of whole numbers are internal operations because their result is also a whole number. However, two integers can only be divided if the dividend is a multiple of the divisor.

To add two whole numbers, proceed as follows:

• If they have the same sign, their absolute values are added, and the result is given the sign that the addendums had: • 7 + 11 = 18 • -7 – 11 = -18 • If they have different signs, that is, if one addition is positive and the other negative, its absolute values are subtracted and the sign of the greater is given: • 7 + (-5) = 7 – 5 = 2 • -7 + 5 = – (7 – 5) = – 2 • 14 + (-14) = 0

The sum of integers has the following properties:

Associative: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Commutative: a + b = b + a Neutral element: zero is the neutral element of the sum, a + 0 = a Opposite element: any whole number a, has an opposite -a, a + (-a) = 0

**Multiplication of Whole Numbers**

To multiply two whole numbers multiply their absolute values and the result is left with a positive sign if both factors are of the same sign or the minus sign is given if the factors are of different signs. This procedure to obtain the sign of a product from the sign of the factors is called the rule of the signs and is synthesized as follows:

+ · + = + + · – = – – · + = – – · – = +

The multiplication of integers has the following properties:

Associative: (a · b) · c = a · (b · c) Commutative: a · b = b · a Neutral element: 1 is the neutral element of multiplication, a · 1 = a Distributive of multiplication with respect to the sum: a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c

To subtract two whole numbers, the minuend is added to the opposite of the subtrahend:

a – b = a + (-b)

For example:

5 – (-3) = 5 + 3 = 8 -2 – 5 = (-2) + (-5) = -7

**What are the Fractional Numbers?**

The Fractional Numbers, are the quotient indicated a / b of two integers that are called numerator, a, and denominator, b. It has to be b ≠ 0.

For example, in fraction 3/5 the denominator, 5, indicates that they are “fifth parts”, that is, it calls the type of part of the unit in question; The numerator, 3, indicates how many of these parts should be taken: “three fifths”.

If the numerator is a multiple of the denominator, the fraction represents an integer:

14/2 = 7; -15 / 3 = -5; 352/11 = 32

**Equivalence**

Two fractions a / b and a ‘/ b’ are equivalent, and it is expressed

a / b = a ‘/ b’ if a · b ‘= b · a’.

A) Yes,

21/28 = 9/12 because 21 · 12 = 9 · 28 = 252.

**Simplification**

If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction are divisible by the same number, d, other than 1 or -1, dividing them by d gives another fraction equivalent to it. It is said that the fraction has been simplified or reduced: a / b = a.d ‘/ b.d’ = a ‘/ b’

For example: 120/90 = 12/9

The 12/9 fraction is the result of simplifying 120/90 by dividing its terms by 10

**Irreducible fractionation**

It is said that a fraction is irreducible if its numerator and denominator are prime numbers together.

The fraction 3/5 is irreducible. The fraction 12/9 is not irreducible because it can be simplified: 12 / = 4/3

**Reduction to common denominator**

To reduce two or more fractions to a common denominator is to obtain other fractions respectively equivalent to them and that all have the same denominator. If the fractions from which they are split are irreducible, the common denominator must be a common multiple of their denominators. If it is the least common multiple (mcm) of them, then it is said that it has been reduced to the lowest common denominator.

For example, to reduce common denominator fractions

2/3, 4/9 and 3/5

you can take 90 as the common denominator, with what you get: 2/3 = 60/90, 4/9 = 40/90, 3/5 = 54/90

That is, it is the result of reducing the three previous fractions to a common denominator: 90.

But if instead of 90 is taken as common denominator 45, which is the LCM of 3, 9 and 5, then you get

30/45, 20/45, 27/445

which is the result of reducing the three fractions to their lowest common denominator.

**Sum of Fractions**

To add two or more fractions are reduced to a common denominator, the numerators are added and their denominator is maintained. For example: 2/3 + 4/9 and + 3/5 = 30/45 + 20/45 + 27/45 = 30 + 20 + 27/45 = 77/45

**Fractions Product**

The product of two fractions is another fraction whose numerator is the product of its numerators and whose denominator is the product of its denominators: a / b * c / d = a * c / b * d

**Reverse of a Fraction**

The inverse of a fraction a / b is another fraction, b / a, which is obtained by permuting the numerator and the denominator. The product of a fraction by its inverse is equal to 1:

a / b * b / a = a * b / b * a = 1/1 = 1

**Fraction Quotient**

The quotient of two fractions is the product of the first by the inverse of the second: a / b: p / q, a / b * q / p, a * q / b * p

Decimal number, any fractional number expressed in the decimal numbering system. Thus, the numbers 7,84; 0.005; -2.8464646 …; 3,141592 … it is said that they are decimals.

The concept of positional values, which is fundamental to expressing integers by Arabic notation on any number basis, can be extended to include fractional numbers. If the numbering base is 10, the different numbers of a whole number mean its value multiplied by a positive power of 10:

3.586 = 3 · 10 ^ 3 + 5 · 10 ^ 2 + 8 · 10 ^ 1 + 6 · 100

To include the numbers with fractional parts you must include figures with their values multiplied by negative powers of 10. These figures are placed to the right of the units separated by a comma:

127,546 = 1 * 10 ^ 2 + 2 * 10 ^ 1 + 7 * 10 ^ 0 + 5 * 10 ^ -1 + 4 * 10 ^ -2 + 6 * 10 ^ -3 =

1 * 100 + 2 * 10 + 7 + 5 * 1/10 + 4 * 1/100 + 6 * 1/1000

The fractional units to the right of the comma are called tenths, hundredths, thousandths, ten thousandths, …, millionths.

If a decimal number has a finite number of decimal places, it is usually called exact decimal and corresponds to an irreducible fraction whose denominator decomposed into prime factors only has factors 2 and 5.

For example: 5,42 = 542/100

Because the denominator is a power of 10, it only has factors 2 and 5, and by reducing the fraction, only these factors remain.

There are decimals with an infinite number of figures that are repeated periodically. They are called periodic decimals and are obtained from irreducible fractions whose denominator has a factor other than 2 or 5.

For example: 3.4222 ……. = 3.42 = 154/45

Finally, there are decimal numbers with infinite numbers that are not repeated periodically. They do not correspond to any fraction and, therefore, are irrational numbers. It is the case of

pi = 3.141592 …

square root of 2 = 1,41424 …

Decimal numbers can be represented on the real line: if they have a finite number of digits, they can be placed theoretically accurate; If their figures are infinite, they can be placed as close as desired

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]]>The post What Is ROTC Program In Army;10 Facts You Must Know appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>Those who complete the two-year physical and academic program successfully and show the potential to become officers can enroll in the advanced course a two-year pro- gram of instruction in organization and management, military tactics, ethics and leadership development. Students must attend a five-week advanced training camp in the field during the summer of their junior and senior year.

All cadets in the advanced course and at training camps receive annual stipends of $4,000 each per academic year. The army also offers a two- year ROTC program for junior and community college students, along with graduate school students and undergraduate upper class-men who have not taken the basic course during their first two years of college. To enter the two- year program, students must first complete the five-week summer basic training camp.

All ROTC applicants may apply for two-, three- and four-year scholarships. Awarded competitively, each scholarship pays annual college tuition and fees, textbooks and supplies and a tax-free stipend of $4,000 per academic year. Four-year scholarships are awarded only to students entering college as freshmen. Two- and three-year scholarships are awarded to students already enrolled in college and to on-duty Army enlisted personnel.

Graduates of four-year ROTC programs receive a conventional bachelor’s degree and a lieutenancy in the U.S. Army. They must serve for at least three years; scholarship students must serve four. Nursing students may enroll in the ROTC and attend a Nurse Summer Train- ing Program instead of the regular camp, to prepare for the Army Nurse Corps. They must then serve in the corps for three years.

Although the ROTC provided the majority of Army officers during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, it is now offered on campus at only about 275 colleges in the United States, although about 1,000 other schools without on-campus ROTC have cross registration agreements with nearby colleges that do offer such training. ROTC was driven off many campuses during the Vietnam War and remains banned at most because of the Army’s position on homosexual soldiers.

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]]>The post What Is Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation;10 Facts You Must Know appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>The Gates Foundation has invested more than $ 1 billion to improve the quality of American secondary education — especially in disadvantaged neighborhoods — by developing small high schools, either starting them from scratch or restructuring existing ones. By 2005, the foundation had invested in 850 new schools, including $110 million in early colleges and millions more to transform existing schools in nearly 275 school districts. Among the school- district investments were $2.3 million to Chicago public schools and $1.4 million to Atlanta public schools. The theory behind small-school development is to lower teacher-student and counselor-student ratios to build strong rela- tionships among teachers, students and students’ families.

The results of the Gates’ efforts have been mixed, however, according to the foundation’s own exhaustive follow-ups. Although quality of teaching and student attendance rates have improved dramatically, students have dis- played little or no improvement in their academic work: Reading and English language arts achievement have improved only slightly, and math proficiency has remained unchanged or actually declined to “alarmingly low” levels. Most students, however, begin the Gates schools academically behind students in other schools in the same districts, and the foundation’s school evaluates are encouraged that the “close interpersonal relationships” in the new schools will eventually translate into ac demic gains.

In 2005, the year before the Buffet gift, the Gates foundation spent about $1.36 billion of its income on a wide variety of projects, allocating 62% to global health, 21% to education, and 17% to fighting poverty. Buffett’s personal interests seemed to favor more spending in the poverty sector.

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]]>The post How Does The Braille System Work;5 Facts You Must Know appeared first on Notes Read.

]]>Blind at the age of three, Braille was sent as a foundling to the National Institute for the Young Blind in Paris. After developing into an accomplished organist and cellist, Braille returned to the institute to teach. At the time, only 14 books existed for the blind, all of them in embossed alphabetical characters that few blind people ever learned to master.

Braille characters are based on a configuration of six large raised dots referred to as the braille cell. To help children learn the system, he numbered each position of the cell as follows

: (1) • – (4)

(2) . . (5)

(3) . . (6)

Each character in the alphabet is formed by removing one or more dots from the basic con- figuration, thus allowing the reader to distinguish each from the others by the number and position of the remaining dots. The first 10 characters serve as both letters and numerals — that is, a, 1; b, 2; c, 3; etc., through j, 0. In addition to the 26 letters of the alphabet, a separate character serves to indicate a capital or upper case letter and a second separate character indicates whether the character that follows is a numeral or a letter. In 1942, a machine called a braille writer was developed to produce braille mechanically.

Braille generally consists of six-dot cells in relief, organized as a matrix of three rows by two columns, which are conventionally numbered from top to bottom and from left to right, as shown in the following figure:

With these six points you get 64 different combinations. With the reliefs conveniently placed to one or another position, the letters are obtained. In the case of capital letters or numbers, a prefix is placed before the symbol matrix. These prefix is also a matrix of points that indicates that what comes next is an uppercase or a number. For example, the following drawing represents the letter A (a relay at position 1)

Instead, the following is the number 1: the numerical prefix (reliefs in 3, 4, 5, 6) followed by the letter A

The expertise and ability of Braille has made it possible for millions of people throughout the world to be more autonomous despite being blind. One example is that in the Andalusian regional elections of 2008, the blind could do so with the **Braille code**

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]]>The program was a response to the deteriorating academic performance of men and women entering teaching in the 1960s, when higher-paying professions lured the highest-ranked college graduates. Meanwhile, those who became pub- lic school teachers tended to have graduated from the lower halves of their college classes. Average SAT scores for high school seniors planning to become education majors are about 4% below the national average for all college-bound students on the verbal tests and 6.3% below the national average on the math- ematics test.

Peer teaching was first developed by British educator Joseph Lancaster as a way of teaching large numbers of children while keeping teacher salary and other school costs at a minimum (see Lancasterian system). In 1798, he educated 1,000 boys at a Society of Friends (Quaker) free school by first tutoring the oldest most responsible boys and appointing the most qualified as monitors to supervise and instruct younger students. In 1 8 1 8, he emigrated to the United States and founded Lancasterian schools in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston and Washington, D.C. Today’s peer tutoring programs have gained widespread acceptance in selective private secondary schools, but teacher-union opposition has hindered their growth in many public schools.

The training of military personnel is based on a social and pedagogical process.Educational is a function that forms the professional qualities of the personality of a serviceman, a healthy moral and psychological state of the military team.The psychological function helps in the formation of quick decision-making in modern war .

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