The Fovism movement or Fauvism as it is also called from the French fauvisme de fauve fiera and movement ism with character, is a French pictorial style characterized mainly by its aestheticism and sentimentality, since it evidences a spirit subject to the conditions of the situation in the moment. This sentimentality leads him to have a deep sense with the naturalist.
Main characteristics of Fauvista art
To better understand what the Fauvist movement was based on , it will be necessary to take into account the main characteristics for which it stood out: The main peculiarity of Fauvist art focuses on expressiveness that goes beyond the realism of situations, however, it has a strong relationship with nature, seeking the union of art with meaningful life. He leaves aside the previous drawing, the perfection of the forms, the portraits, landscapes and other properly established elements.
The Fauvist movement can create elements that do not really exist. What is most striking about this artistic style is the presence of colors in different shades, the strong, marked and solid lines in each contour of the figures, where they are mostly marked with black and, as for the other colors, their application form is out of the traditional and reality for your choice. Fauvist art departs from conventionalism and is strongly influenced by African art .
Its mission is mainly to represent joy, saturated colors, sentimentality and union with nature from a chromatic game where the viewer’s attention is drawn by highlighting the colors without seeking the perfection of the work.
These are the main elements of this movement for the creation of his works:
-Imagination to mix the inner world with the real one
-Imagination, freedom and rebellion
Birth of Fauvism
This movement originates in France from approximately the years 1904 to 1908, where it quickly moved to countries in the area, although its duration was very short. As for its name, it comes from ‘the wild beasts’ les fauves , which were a set of works that were exhibited during the celebration of the 1905 Autumn Salon, in room number VII, one of the crucial moments for the movement. Thus, given the inability to find a classification where the works presented could be integrated, the group of artists gave rise to this movement, defining characteristics such as the use of colors and the intense, marked and strong definition of the painted lines.
The Favismo movement is considered one of the movements that was not solidly defined, since in many parts it is interpreted as a contribution mosaic in which each artist created his works freely, rejecting conventionalism. However, the artists thought that in each of the colors they implemented they had the possibility of expressing a feeling, so this influence was reflected in their works. This characteristic was evident in their creations as they left perfection aside and looked for ways to express the value of each of the colors.
Classification of Fauvista art
Despite its short duration, among the works of Fauvism we find different disciplines, among which are mainly: oil painting, drawing and sculpture.
Fauvist painting artists choose to start with works linked to freedom, leaving aside the impressionist postulates of the time. For the Fauvist painter, the most important thing in the painting he performs is color, so he does not prioritize aspects such as the realism of the figures or light. This is how the essence of Favism painting focuses on the passion for colors that are expressed in a pure way with a linked feeling.
The color of Fauvist art paintings is flat so that a single plane is also used within the canvas. Aspects such as depth and light bulbs do not appear, but it is colors that structure the space based on a simple technique.
Elements of Fauvist painting
-Paint is used sporadically, without mixing or organization
-Colors are pure
-The separations are proposed with solid lines as an outline for each figure
Drawing was seen for a long time as the previous phase for the action of painting, this is how drawing would function as a sketch prior to subsequent painting. However, the painting received more value when they began to be seen as a study process for the artist as part of his construction process for the great work.
The drawing of this movement is characterized by the visual language that the artist proposes, so that free lines, aesthetic values and above all, a unique expressiveness are evident.
Sculpture of the fauvista movement
Regarding the sculpture of this movement, various artists appear with varied techniques and materials that express Fauvian art using different elements under the same essence, for which they make works such as figures carved in wood.
Characteristics of the fauvista sculpture
-Try to create sculpture figures based on natural models of the environment
-Stop being interested in a particular topic and let expressiveness flow
-His works show less perspective towards three-dimensionality
-The strokes of the works are strong, dark and thick
Fauvism’s most important works
Among the most important works of this movement, the works of painting stand out, these are:
The joy of living: Created in 1905 – 1906, it marks one of the classic Fauvism paintings with a varied content of Japanese prints, Persian and Byzantine figures. It is a painting with a subjective purpose for the observer where the lines are seen in the contour of the bodies with characteristics of the oriented odalisques carried to a western air.
The dance: In this painting the artist creates very marked contours for the 5 human bodies that appear in the work, where there is also a reduction in the range of colors implemented. The bodies do not allow the visualization of the face and the position in a circle takes the viewer to a natural, continuous rhythm and without an apparent end.
La Ratlla Verda: This work represents the wife of one of the most important artists of the time, Matisse. The painting expresses a strong face, marked with hardness and with a clear gaze at a point that is outside the limit of the painting. However, the contours of the figure make it move away from a delicate and feminine face, because the lines are abrupt. The use of colors is one of the most outstanding aspects of this work.
Matisse’s Red Room: Although the initial work had more touches of green, the final one stands out for its red color, which contrasts with others more like blue creating a much more striking environment that captures the viewer’s attention and given the presence of other colors allows no detail to go unnoticed.
Gold fish: This painting shows colors that most of them had not appeared, focusing mainly on a pink base. The artist was inspired by a trip he had to Morocco, for this reason he proposes a very natural painting where the gold fish are surrounded by flowers and green leaves in the contour of the fish tank.
Authors representing Fauvism
The art and movement of Fauvism manages to captivate and integrate different artists who focus on different types of art, which is why they appear to be the following:
Henri Matisse (from the year 1869 – 1954)
He is considered the most important and most representative figure in the entire fauvista movement, being the only artist who avoids changing direction, so he remains in this type of art creating new works that would impact later. Influenced by artists such as Van Gogh , Signac and Gaugain, he creates one of the works that marks its construction and is one of the most important of the ‘The joy of living’ movement. This work emerges from your imagination with a subjective sense source.
Main characteristics: It simplifies formal themes, seeks to improve the colors that are present in the work, dominates safety in its works, the drawings are made with color on the way to its own depth.
Maurice de Vlaminck (from the year 1876 – 1958)
This painter stood out mainly for the creation of deeply dramatic landscapes that were inspired by the artist Van Gogh using his same brushstroke with a significant color. In addition to creating paintings with bright chromatic contrasts. His most characteristic work for the period of validity of this movement was ‘Red Trees’ in 1906.
André Derain (from the year 1880 – 1954)
This artist seeks to mark the movement with his technique based on country characters but also with urban characters, as is the case of the painting ‘Bridge in London’ from 1906. His work highlights the purity of each of the colors implemented, as well as the direction they take from totally irregular brushstrokes that lack concern for aspects such as the realistic representation of the situation or its perspective. Towards the year 1908 he begins to search for other styles that lead him to cubism.
Main characteristics: He stands out mainly for the use of rural and urban figures in each of his works, he specializes in finding the pure colors marked on the canvas and the nature of them.
Contributions and legacy of the fauvista movement
The fauvista art is consolidated as the first movement that cuts and breaks with what has hitherto been marked in the artistic world, so it breaks with tradition looking for new ways and ways to create innovative pieces.
As for the contributions that this current of art has provided, its performance and exercise is mainly found as a process of evolution for other currents that are beginning to move away from reality, with more rebellious touches and outside the mark. Fauvism bets on a style with a stronger and more aggressive expression that over the years receives the value it deserves.