Anatomical Terms For Body Parts.Anatomical terminology. Terms that define the relative situation between the anatomical structures: Anterior and posterior: forward or backward respectively.
The proper application of these anatomical terms helps us to study the structures of the organism more effectively. These terms are:
- Superior or cephalic: Refers to the end where the headof the body is.
- For example, the elbow is superior to the wrist.
- Inferior or caudal: It moves away (outside) of the head. Down. For example, the heartis superior to the diaphragm .
- Anterior or ventral: It refers to some structure that is in front.
- Posterior or dorsal: It refers to when a part of the body is backwards.
- Midline: An imaginary line that divides the body into left-right halves.
- Middle or internal: Something that is directed towards the midline of the body.
- Lateral or external: It moves away (outside) the midline of the body. We can say that the earsare on the lateral portion of the head.
- Proximal: It refers to when the connection point of a body limb is closer to (or directed towards) the trunk or the point of origin of a part of the body.
- Distal: The point of attachment of a limb of the body is further away (or directed away from) the trunk or the point of origin of a part of the body.
- Superficial or peripheral: Closer to the surface of some structure in the body. For example, nailsare superficial to the epithelial tissue below them.
- Deep or central: Farther from the surface of the body. For example, the ribsare deep to the pectoral muscles.
- Parietal: Refers to the walls of a cavity.
- Visceral: It refers to the organs that are inside the cavity.
Some Anatomical Terms For Body Parts
Syntopy is the definition of the relationship of parts and organs of a person with each other.
Skeletopia – determination of the position and projection of parts and organs of a person in relation to bones.
Holotopy is the definition of parts and organs of a person in relation to areas of the body.
- ( Superior ) Upper, higher in location
- ( Inferior ) Lower, lower in position, closer to the legs
- ( Anterior ) Anterior, frontal part of the body
- ( Posterio r) Rear, back of the body
- ( Ventralis ) Ventral (venter – abdomen) – facing the anterior abdominal surface
- ( Dorsalis ) Dorsal (dorsum – back) – located closer to the back, back of the body: (example) arteries of the dorsum of the hand and muscles of the dorsum of the foot
- ( Lateralis ) Lateral (latus – side) – located further from the median plane or line of the body. The radius is lateral to the ulna, the thumb is lateral to the little finger
- ( Medialis ) Medial (middle) – located closer to the median sagittal plane or body line
- ( Intermedius ) Intermediate – located between two adjacent structures: the intermediate broad muscle of the thigh (head of the quadriceps) – musculus vastus intermedius
- ( Medianus ) Median – located in the median sagittal plane.
- ( Collateralis ) Collateral – on the same half of the body as the other structure (collateral arteries – compensation of blood flow in chronic ischemia)
- ( Ipsilateralis ) Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body as the other structure: (example) ipsilateral tilt – tilt to the same side.
- ( Contrlateralis ) Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body: (example) contralateral rotation – in the opposite direction
- ( Proximalis ) Proximal – located closer to the body (when describing the limbs)
- ( Distalis ) Distal – located further from the trunk (when describing the limbs)
- ( Visceralis ) Visceral (literally – internal) – related to internal organs: visceral pain (stomach ulcer, etc.), visceral arteries, etc.
- ( Parietalis ) Parietal (literally – parietal) – referring to the wall, for example, the abdominal (parietal arteries)
- ( Externus ) Outside – located outside
- ( Internus ) Internal – located within
- ( Dexter ) Right
- ( Sinister ) Left
- ( Major ) Large (larger) (two anatomical structures are compared in size)
- ( Minor ) Small (smaller) (two anatomical structures are compared in size) example: pectoralis major and minor (musculi pectorales major it minor)
- ( Planum medianum ) Median plane – passes in the anteroposterior direction through the middle of the human body and divides it into 2 almost identical halves (right and left). It is also called the median sagittal plane .
- ( Planum sagittale ) Sagittal is any near-median plane that runs parallel to the median sagittal plane (sagitta – arrow).
- ( Planum frontale ) Frontal is any plane that runs parallel to the forehead (frontalis) and perpendicular to the sagittal plane.
- ( Planum horizontale ) Horizontal – this plane is perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes, since we are considering a person in an upright position.
Main anatomical axes:Anatomical Terms For Body Parts
- The vertical axis ( vertical Axis ) – directed along the body of a standing person. Example: A joint is rotated around a vertical axis.
- The longitudinal axis is also oriented along the human body, but does not depend on its position in space. It goes along the limb (arm, leg), or along the organ, the long dimensions of which prevail over others.
- Front axle ( frontal axis ) – the direction coincides with the front plane. It is also called a transverse or horizontal axis. Example: flexion and extension of the joint is provided around the frontal axis.
- Sagittal axis ( sagittal axis ) – the axis is located as the sagittal plane, in the anteroposterior direction. Example: Abduction and adduction in the joint is provided around the sagittal axis.
Conditional vertical lines
Used to determine the projection of the chest cavity organs onto the chest wall:
- The anterior midline ( linea mediana anterior ) runs from the jugular notch in the middle of the chest through the navel to the pubic symphysis.
- The sternal line ( linea sternalis ) is located along the lateral edge of the sternum.
- The parasternal line ( linea parasternalis ) runs in the middle of the distance between the sternal and midclavicular lines.
- The midclavicular (nipple) line ( linea medioclavicularis (mamillaris) ) runs through the middle of the clavicle and the nipple.
- The anterior axillary line ( linea axillaris anterior ) runs along the anterior edge of the armpit.
- The middle axillary line ( linea aхillaris media ) runs through the middle of the armpit.
- The posterior axillary line ( linea aхillaris posterior ) runs along the posterior edge of the armpit.
- The scapular line ( linea scapularis ) passes through the lower angle of the scapula when the upper limb is lowered.
- The paravertebral line ( linea paravertebralis ) runs in the middle of the distance between the scapular line and the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae.
- The posterior median line ( linea mediana posterior ) corresponds to the location of the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae.
Anatomical planes;Anatomical Terms For Body Parts
From the anatomical position, we can draw three cuts or anatomical planes, namely: the sagittal (or anterior-posterior), coronal (or frontal) and transverse (or horizontal) plane. These plans will allow us to better understand the situation or the direction of the structures of our body.
- The sagittal (middle) plane passes from the anterior part of the body (or segment of it) to the posterior, dividing the latter into two halves, left and right. It is said to be a mid-sagittal plane when it crosses the same half of the body, being a symmetrical cut.
- The coronal (frontal) plane passes from the anterior part of the body (or segment of it) to the posterior, dividing the latter into two halves, anterior and posterior. In other words, this type of plane passes through the body from side to side.
- The transverse (horizontal) plane passes the body (or a segment of it) horizontally, dividing it into upper and lower halves.
When we talk about the anatomy of the human body, it is useful to study it from a “standard” position. This allows the relative description of the parts of the body with less degree of confusion. This is called anatomical position. This is described as a person standing , facing forward, upper limbs along the trunk, feet forward