This Research Article has been supervised by Nutritionist/Food Expert Anum Nazir).She is Lecturer in School of Nutritional sciences At University of Faisalabad).
Researcher And Writer.
Supervised By Anum Nazir
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University Of Faisalabad,Pakistan
Topic: Alliance of nut consumption with body weight and obesity
Abstract: There has been emergent awareness in addition of nuts in daily diet and their consequence relate with human well-being. The intake of nuts is allied with lessening the risk factors of many chronic diseases as well as great effect on human body weight. There are many controversial between nuts and weight, because nuts are in high fat, energy-dense content of nuts may support weight gain and increase the chances of obesity. Nevertheless, nuts are rich in protein content and dietary fiber, which cause satiety cause feeling of fullness for longer period plus, richest amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytosterols compounds has confer health benefits that ensure the well-being. Hence, it is very significant to prove and do more researches is needed to address the detailed special effects of nuts on satiety, energy stability, body weight management.
There is rising concern in nut consumption and human health consequences (Ros etal, 2006). Usually, the public as calorific because of their high fat content has perceived nuts. The confirmation that a higher amount of fat in the diet cause increased in body weight is debatable (Willet, 1998).
Nuts are suggested in Mediterranean diet, and their intake has been suggested to individuals all over the world to promote the well-being (Ros et al., 2014).
Some concerning points related to this review are describe such as nuts characteristics, obesity prevalence and their relation regarding to weight gain and weight loss
Nutritional composition of nuts:
Nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, cashew nuts, Brazil nuts, macadamias, hazelnuts and pistachios, in addition to legume seeds, such peanuts, are nutritious foods each with special composition to health. Generally, nuts have healthy monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA), protein, fibers, vitamins E and K, folate, vitamin B1, minerals for instance magnesium, copper, potassium and antioxidants, and phytosterols composites, with standard aids to human well-being. Supposed that nutritional attributes can effect health plus the choice of different portion sizes of nuts play important role for prevention (Cardoso et al., 2017).
Nuts have been considered foods with a high nutritious status due to nutrient dense. Each variation has particular features but, in over-all terms, nuts provide between 23.4 and 26.8 kJ/g, and are low in saturated fat (<7%) but very rich in unsaturated fats (40–60%), mainly polyunsaturated in walnuts, and monounsaturated in almonds, pistachios and peanuts. Nuts are one of the most imperative bases of dietary fiber, and good sources of plant proteins, antioxidants, micro minerals and numerous bioactive compounds, which promotes the well-being (Albert CM et al., 2002).
Prevalence of obesity:
Obesity is a worldwide growing concern. Bulky appearance and obesity are major community worries. Population health statistics illustrate that obesity in Australia, and in other industrialized states including the United Kingdom continuing to increase. In Australia 67% of men and 52% of women are overweight and the uninterrupted costs are assessed to be over $840 million per year (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2003).
Increases in the prevalence rate of overweight and obesity global signify a chief community health problem. Weight gain is an ongoing process, averagely, an adult gains 1 pound (or 0.45 kg) yearly, for example, 20 pounds over 20 y (González MA and Rastrollo M, 2011).
Nuts and body weight:
Previous evaluations and epidemiological trials have recommended that consistent nut consumption have valuable influence on well-being throughout obesity (Jackson et al., 2014).
Nuts with two solid dynamics that to increase the satiety and elongate feelings of fullness helps in managing weight (Holt SH et al., 1995).
The number of randomized well-ordered trials were done in weight managing or cholesterol-reducing trials results shown that higher nut consumption with energy control diet was linked with no weight increase or with sustaining a stable and healthy body weight (Sabate, 2003).
This literature review intentions towards:
- Observe the reviews regarding nuts and well-being.
- Discover the best nuts to manage weight.
- Pinpoint and estimate the existing evidence regarding the role of nut intake in weight controlling.
2.0 Review of literature:
Dietary fiber in nuts contribute with a lower BMI ,waist-to-hip ratio and fasting level of Apo lipoprotein B and glucose (Lairon et al., 2005).
Nut consumption was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, nevertheless of demographic influences, living pattern, and further dietary aspects (Jaceldo-Siegl et al., 2014).
A study is done to examine the role of nuts in weight maintenance. The results of study shown that Nuts have protein which helps to feel full longer time period and fiber, which helps to fill up plus nuts are richest source of healthy fat content, take much elongated time to digest than carbohydrates and protein, which cause the stitey level for longer time period(Mills, 2019).
Authors recommended that nuts have some kind of satiating quality. 6-month clinical trial, between 54 and 78% of the extra energy provided by an almond supplement was expatriate by declines in the intake of other food and this help to control weight minimizing the food consumption (Fraser et al., 2002).
The thousand studies have shown an opposite link between nut consumption and BMI Dietary fat has been frequently involved in the improvement and maintenance of obesity while there is significant controversy on that alliance. However, since nuts are rich in fat, their beneficial nutritive benefits of nuts on body weight has generated some recent concerns (Rajaram and Sabate,
2006).The specific composition of nuts can have solid effect on human metabolism in such a way that it involve in the availability of energy in greater amount .Animal and human studies have presented that high intake of unsaturated fat consumption in comparison the intake of saturated fat have great health benefits such as higher diet-induced thermogenesis, higher fat oxidation and less body fat accumulation (Jones et al., 1992; Takeuchi et al., 1995).
A Survey of food consumption by individuals accompanied by the US Department of Agriculture from 1994-1996 that has been done to relate BMI and total energy intake between nut eaters and non-nut eaters. At the result shown that young and adult nut eaters have lower BMI value than to non-nut eaters (US department of agriculture, 2000).
A Spanish cohort study examined nut intake and its link with either risk of weight increase of ≥5 kg or the possibility of becoming overweight or obese in a Mediterranean population. A study was done between adult men and women who completed a follow-up questionnaire with authenticated semi quantitative food-frequency questionnaires after determining age, sex, smoking and nutritional status, physical activity rate , and other obesity risk aspects. Results shown that nut consumption was not linked with incident overweight/obesity in the cohort study, but it was significantly related with a decrease the risk of weight gain of ≥5 kg., participants who ate nuts ≥2 times/week had a significantly‐ lower risk of weight gain compared with those who not ever or virtually never ate nuts (Bes Rastrollo et al., 2007).
Epidemiological data of nuts are available in the literature mainly related to many diseases In addition to studies, which had outcomes of obesity and overweight. The Nurses’ Health Study, which examined 51,118 healthy and middle-aged women for 8 years, determined that increase in nut intake was not related with weight gain. Concluded results of the cited cohort investigation recommended that increase the nuts consumption into daily life diet does not relate to increase in weight nevertheless it helps in controlling weight (Bes-Rastrollo et al., 2009).
Studies show that when nuts are consumed in replacement with other food then there is no weight gain is reported. On the other hand more prominent fact that some studies found that when nuts are added to the diet, there is no linked with increase in body weight, when total energy consumption is markedly more(Morgan and Clayshulte, 2000; Morgan et al., 2002). For example, Addition of 48g of nuts(walnuts) in the diet for about 2 months, results shown that there is no weight gain reported although energy consumption increase by 1661kj/day (Almario et al., 2001)
One study did to check the fact about increase in body weight with increased nut intake body. In this experiment is done on 20 adults with normal BMI about 23 ± 0.3 kg/m2) adults. These adults were taught to consume a tremendously large amount of almonds daily (100 grams / 4-week) and were requested to lessen energy intake from other food commodities by an equal amount to continue a balanced diet throughout the period. Providing whole almonds or almonds in a variety of food commodities to participants. At the end of 4-weeks results shown, that Weight increased slightly in males about 0.9 kg and in females about 0.3 kg However, the almond-enriched diet furthermore produced some other advantageous reductions serum cholesterol level on the other hand the consumption of almond-supplemented diet have great impact on Insulin sensitivity and glucose response( Lovejoy et al., 2002).
Study is done to collect data in three prospective which included Health Professionals (1986 to 2010), Nurses’ Health Study, 1986 to 2010), younger women (Nurses’ Health Study II, 1991 to
2011), these were free of all chronic disease . In this study in investigation, the association between changes in nut consumption over 4-year intervals and concurrent weight change over 20– 24 years of follow-up. At the end of 4 years Average weight gain were taken which shown the results that Increases in nut consumption which is about 0.5 servings/day or 14 /day, was significantly associated with less weight gain per 4-year interval. Conclusion of that study was increasing intakes of combination of nuts like almonds, walnuts, and other tree nuts by (0.5 servings/day) was allied with a lesser peril of obesity( Manson et al., 1995).
Several intrusion studies have compared the effects of incorporating nuts in a weight management. An assessment was done on 65 adults to determine the weight reduction program by including the almond vs complex carbohydrates. Thirty-two applicants (age, 53 ± 2 y; BMI, 39 ± 1 kg/m2) were selected for formula-based diet supplemented with almonds (84 g/d). Thirty-three adults (mean age, 57 ± 2 y; BMI, 37 ± 1 kg/m2) were selected for a group that allowed self-selecting the complex carbohydrates which gives 53% of total∼ energy along with safflower oil. Both diets were considered low energy per day is about 4184 kJ and were complemented for protein with 29% of energy, cholesterol amount 4%, and saturated fat near to 3%. Walking program (20-30 min/3-5 times per week) were advised along with dietary interventions. At the end of 24-week time period results shown that the almond selected group had more satisfactory reductions in weight and BMI
along with reduction also seen in waist circumference and fat mass measures on the other hand in carbohydrates group HDL cholesterol level but not in the almond group (Wien et al., 2003).
Evidence alliance to different nuts with weight loss:
- Brazil nuts: Large Brazil nuts have an exclusive consistency and taste. These nuts contain beneficial palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, which promote healthy cholesterol levels (Nutrition and You, 2015). Moreover, these are best-known bases of the mineral selenium act as an antioxidant that boost immune function of body (National Institutes of Health, 2016).
- Cashews: Cashews are the richest source of Magnesium that play essential role in fat and carbohydrates metabolism. Cashews provide 73% of recommended daily dose of magnesium, which may help in the weight loss. They are also have monounsaturated fatty acids like palmitoleic acids and oleic. These vital fatty acids aid in lowering the harmful LDL-cholesterol in body although increasing good HDL cholesterol (Nutrition and You, 2015).
- Pistachios: The slight green color and exclusive flavor of pistachios loaded with great dietary fiber. Daily intake about 0ne-ounce provide 3 grams of dietary fiber, which complete 12% of daily DA requirement. (Self-Nutrition Data, 2015). Study shown that getting sufficient dietary fiber helps your body sense filled, reduce feeling about food desires. In a recent logical study, a pistachio-rich diet have great effect on reducing belly fat and shown smaller waist size. (Girdwain, 2014).
- Walnuts: Like all nuts, these are also high in healthy unsaturated fats. Nevertheless, walnuts are unique because they contain high levels of polyunsaturated fats there are different types of PUFAs the form found mainly in plants known as alpha-linoleic acid, also written as ALA. It helps in to stimulate body to lose weight faster and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Erlich, 2014). Dose of walnuts about 2.5 grams of ALA/per serving making rich source of essential fatty acids. A study shown that walnut-rich diet was associated with great weight loss and help in increase HDL cholesterol level (Le et al., 201
Conclusion: Nuts are not only the energy dense food but also the densely packed nutrients with the wide range of health benefits, which can be readily incorporated in to healthy diets. Different systematic reviews are done to see the effects of nuts on obesity rate among population. The potential role in counteracting obesity warrants further investigates.
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