Abu Bakr. First Arab caliph, successor to his father-in-law, Muhammad , born in Mecca in 573 and died on August 23 , 634 in Medina . Initiator of the series called the Orthodox Caliphs . He was the first caliph, a close friend of Muhammad , whom he supported. A man of wise advice, decision and dedicated to his mission, he was the ideal person to succeed Muhammad.
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- 1 Biographical synthesis
- 1 Trajectory
- 1.1 First Wars
- 2 Death
- 1 Trajectory
- 2 Sources
He was born in the year 573 .
The name Abu Bakr is actually a nickname that is usually translated as the father of the camels ; In fact, he had a large number of these animals, of which he took great care. This appellation has become a frequent proper name throughout the Islamic world (with variations such as Bubker , Babacar , Ebubekir , etc.). As-Siddiq is also an appellation that means “The Sincere”; their descendants are called siddiqi . His original given name was ‘Abd al-Ka’ba , this is Servant of the Kaaba , which he changed to’ Abd Allah ( Servant of God ) after his conversion to Islam .
He was a merchant from Mecca , somewhat younger than the ancient Muhammad , and suffered severe losses in his earnings because of his loyalty to him. He was the only companion of Muhammad in the Egira .
Muhammad strengthened the ties of friendship that united them both by marrying the daughter of this Aisha . He was a great advisor. He was appointed to head the September 627 expedition and led prayers in the Medina mosque during Muhammad’s last illness. A brief period of uncertainty followed his death, but the people, and Abu Bakr , were persuaded . Caliph was appointed or to render obedience. The Arab tribes refused to pay tribute to Medina or to render obedience to the officials of this city. This movement was given the name of Apostasy , but such a term (ridda) is too strong.
Many honestly believed they had taken an oath of allegiance to Muhammad , not to his successors. His choice was answered by Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, who claimed the succession for himself. Ali finally complied with the election of Abu Bakr, but this divergence would lead years later to the division of Muslims into three branches: Sunnis , Shiites and Kharijites .
Abu Bakr insisted that Muhammad had founded a new religion and that the system of government was based on it, so that his death had not brought about any change. As a result of this, he started the war with the objective of reducing the tribes to obedience. The same year of his election, tribal revolts broke out in the Hijaz and Nechd regions ; the first rejected Islam and the second was caused by the refusal to pay the zakat tax to the Islamic State . The caliph put down both revolts, although he had to face strong opposition from now on, the most important of which was that led by Musailma . He was finally defeated by Khalid ibn Walidin the battle of Akraba , after which the Arabian Peninsula was definitively attached to the Islamic state .
Achieving this, Abu Bakr led his generals to conquer other territories: Iraq was taken from the Sassanid Empire by Khalid ibn Walid in a single campaign.
During that brief period, governments began to expand into Iraq and Syria . During his government, the first compilation of the Koran was made , which until then was only recited by heart.
Abu Bakr died on August 23 of the 634 in Medina . Shortly before his death, attributed by some to poisoning and by others to natural causes, he appointed Umar ibn al-Khattab as his successor , a choice that was ratified by the community, again with the opposition of Ali and his supporters (according to the Shiites), although without any serious incident. He is buried next to Muhammad and Omar in the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina .