Aboriginal Proto-farmers in Media Luna:

Aboriginal Proto-farmers in Media Luna: Their presence dates back to about 2000 years old in our territory. Apparently, they must have crossed the Cauto Plain and dispersed from north to south along the Guacanayabo.


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  • 1 Arrival of the late Mesolithic of Cuba
  • 2 Settlement sites in Media Luna
  • 3 Meals they ate
  • 4 Origin of Media Luna Proto-farmers
  • 5 Division of labor by sex
  • 6 Cultural characteristics
  • 7 Religious characteristics
  • 8 Sources

Arrival of the late Mesolithic of Cuba

Around the year 500 BC, that is, around 2500 years ago, the time of the so-called “golden age” of Greek civilization, a new ethnos arrived in Cuba in successive waves. They come from the Mississippi Valley, from there they move to Florida and finally to the north of Cuba. They settled on the north coast of Matanzas and other central provinces. They reached Holguín , there is a site considered referential, Arroyo del Palo, sufficiently studied.

Everything seems to indicate that some individuals penetrated the Cauto plain and reached Guacanayabo, moving south they settled in Media Luna and Niquero .

Settlement sites in Media Luna

So far only two sites have been detected, both in the vicinity of Arroyo de Cuchillo and very close to the coast, which have been named Cuchillo-01 and Cuchillo-02. Both sites were studied before suffering the deterioration caused by the constant advance of the sea and the irrepressible dynamics of the coasts. They were discovered in 1979 and the first years of the 80’s. Their study lasted until 1998. These aborigines settled the same on coasts that inland, in low or high areas, survived as such until 1492 and similar groups are detected in the Dominican Republic

Meals they consumed

The Aboriginal Proto-farmers who settled in the Cuchillo area consumed meat from chelonians, abundant coastal mollusks, birds, snakes, jutía and fish.

Origin of Media Luna Proto-farmers

The element that allows establishing its origin is related to the characteristics of the flint micro-lithic industry. In the particular case of eastern sites, the pottery is rough and has few incised lines, some simple geometric figures and sometimes traces of red paint.

These groups are owners of a superior development that can be seen in their work instruments, in their manufacturing techniques. The micro-lithic technique in the carving of flint allows to considerably broaden the utilitarian spectrum of many work instruments, here enter the micro-tips for arrows, perforators, retouched flakes, etc.

In proto-agricultural sites, pestles, pestles, various hammers, polishers are collected, all made from rocks of considerable hardness, used to crush seeds and fruits, to mash the meat of mollusks and others. Axes, objects made from the shells of mollusks from the coast, finger gouges, etc. are also collected. They built houses, canoes, and other wooden objects. The presence of net submersors suggests the existence of plant fiber fabrics.

Division of labor by sex

The division of labor by sex and age prevailed for the elaboration of raw materials: women were in charge of the tasks of pottery, gathering, incipient agriculture, while men were in charge of hunting, fishing and farming. chert carving.

At certain times of the year there were seasonal detachments of forage groups. Thus, during part of the year the clan structure was partially broken, which implies a deterioration of the gentile relations.

Cultural characteristics

These proto-farmers made abstract cave drawings with vegetable and mineral dyes. Also, as part of their magical practices, they adorned their bodies with paintings, they have been found -although not in Media Luna- wooden objects decorated with geometric drawings, wooden balls, shell earrings and even bird bone flutes.

Religious characteristics

The lives of those men were closely linked to superstition, to a magical conception of the universe and life. Totemism and animism are present in their funeral practices. Their ceremonies were tinged with a certain type of music, achieved based on very rudimentary wind and percussion instruments.


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