5 Principles of Learning

Principles of Learning and Learning – Learning is a process of changing behavior that arises because of experience. Learning is not just remembering but broader than that, namely experiencing, learning outcomes are not a mastery of the results of training but a change in behavior, learning activities can be internalized (experienced) by people who are learning and can also be observed by others.

Learning is a system that aims to help the student learning process, which contains a series of events that are designed, arranged in such a way as to influence and support the student learning process.

In order to create and produce learning and learning activities that are successful and enjoyable, it is necessary to know the various foundations, namely principles and learning theories. The teaching and learning process is indeed the most important part in implementing the curriculum, including understanding the principles of learning itself.

As for being able to know the effectiveness and efficiency of a lesson, we can see it through this learning activity. Therefore, in carrying out learning it is fitting for a teacher to know how to make learning activities run well and be able to achieve the goals as desired.

The learning principles put forward by Rothwal AB (1961) are:
1) The Principle of Readiness (Readines)
2) The Principle of Motivation (Motivation)

3) Principles of Perception
4) Principles of Objectives
5) Principles of Individual Differences
6) Principles of Transfer and Retention
7) Principles of Cognitive Learning
8) Principles of Affective Learning
9) Principles of Evaluation Learning
10) Principles of Psychomotor Learning
In general, learning principles are related to

6+ Learning and Learning Principles

1. Attention and Motivation 
Attention has an important role in learning activities. From the study of information processing learning theory it was revealed that without attention learning is impossible (Gage n Berliner, 1984: 335). If the learning material is felt as something that is needed, needed for further learning or needed in everyday life, it will generate motivation to learn it.

If this natural concern does not exist, students need to raise their attention. In addition to attention, motivation has a very important role in learning activities. Motivation is the energy that moves and directs one’s activities. Motivation can be compared to the engine and steering on a car (Gage and Berliner, 1984: 372).

Motivation has a close relationship with interest. Students who have an interest in a particular field of study tend to be attracted to it and thus the motivation arises to study that field of study. Motivation is also influenced by values ​​that are considered important in one’s life. Changes in adopted values ​​will change human behavior and motivation. Motivation can be internal, meaning it comes from oneself, it can also be external, namely coming from other people, from teachers, parents, friends and so on.

2. Active Learning
The tendency of psychology today assumes that children are active beings. Children have the urge to do something, have their own abilities and aspirations. Learning cannot be forced by others nor can it be delegated to others. Learning is only possible when children actively experience themselves.

Therefore, teachers should never allow students who do not actively participate in learning. More than just activating student learning, the teacher must try to increase the level of these learning activities. The activity of listening to the teacher’s explanation already shows learning activities. However, perhaps the levels need to be increased with other teaching methods.

3. Direct Engagement
In Learning Edgar Dale in the classification of learning experiences as outlined in the list of his experiences argued that the best learning is learning through direct experience. In learning through direct experience students do not just observe directly but they must live, be directly involved in actions, and be responsible for the results.

The importance of direct involvement in learning was put forward by John Dewey with his “learning by doing”. Learning is best experienced through direct action. Learning must be carried out by students actively, both individually and in groups, by solving problems (prolem solving). The teacher acts as a guide and facilitator.

4. Repetition of Learning
The principle of learning that emphasizes the need for repetition put forward by the theory of Psychology By holding repetition, these power will develop. Just as a knife which is always being sharpened becomes sharp, so the faculties which are trained by repetition will become perfect.

Many human behaviors occur due to conditions, for example students lining up to enter class when they hear bells ringing, vehicles stop when traffic lights turn red. According to this theory, individual behavior can be conditioned, and learning is an attempt to condition a behavior or response to something.

Teaching is forming a habit, repeating an action so that it becomes a habit and habituation does not always need to be a real stimulus, but can also be accompanied by a stimulus.

5. The Stimulating and Challenging Nature of the Material Learned
Field Theory of Kurt Lewin suggests that in a learning situation, it is in a psychological field or field. In a learning situation students face a goal to be achieved, but there are always obstacles in learning the learning material, so motives arise to overcome these obstacles, namely by learning the language of learning.

If these obstacles have been overcome, it means that the learning objectives have been achieved, then he will enter a new field and new goals, and so on. In order for children to have strong motives to overcome obstacles well, learning materials must be challenging. The challenges faced in learning materials make students excited to overcome them.

Lessons that provide opportunities for students to accept concepts, principles, and generalizations will cause students to try to find and find these concepts, principles, and generalizations.

6. Providing feedback or feedback and strengthening learning
Students study hard and get good grades in tests. Good grades encourage children to study harder. A good value can be operant conditioning or positive reinforcement.

On the other hand, a child who gets a bad grade at the time of the test will feel afraid of not going to class, because he is afraid of not going to class he is motivated to study harder. Here, bad grades and fear of not going to class can also encourage children to study harder. This is what is called negative reinforcement.

Here students try to avoid unpleasant events, so negative reinforcement is also called escape conditioning. The presentation format is in the form of questions and answers, discussions, experiments, discovery methods, and so on, which is a way of teaching and learning that allows feedback and reinforcement to occur. The feedback that students get immediately after learning through the use of these methods will make students motivated to study more actively and enthusiastically.

by Abdullah Sam
I’m a teacher, researcher and writer. I write about study subjects to improve the learning of college and university students. I write top Quality study notes Mostly, Tech, Games, Education, And Solutions/Tips and Tricks. I am a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

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