Applied Linguistic is more concerned today with the practice of language teaching especially foreign language teaching. The study of language is not only covers one aspect, but has extended to outside the language associated with the use of language and human life.
What is Applied Linguistics?
The word apply means “ put to practical use “so applied linguistics is more close to educational linguistics, because all the language methods can be applied and practiced.
- History of Applied Linguistic
The term refers to a variety of activities that involve multiple aspects related to the solving language problem issues. The first officially recognized course was at the University of Michigan in 1946.
During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the use of this term gradually was expanded for automatic translation. In 1964 after two years of preparatory work International Association of Applied Linguistics was established and the first international congress was held in Nan. They say the term “means to help solve certain problems in society”.
Research in Applied linguistics focuses on various areas in which language plays a significant role. The research only goal would be “apply the findings and techniques of research in linguistics and related disciplines to solve practical problems”.
In the United Kingdom, the first school of applied linguistics was established in 1957 at the University of Edinburgh with Ian Catford as Chief. In the United States, the Center of Applied Linguistics (CAL), had been founded in 1959 by Charles Ferguson as the first director.
The basic goal of establishing CAL was to ‘promote the study of languages and to assist people in achieving education, employment, social and their goals through more effective communication’. This nonprofit organization (CALL) performed its mission, by doing practical research, developing practical materials and training of individuals such as teachers, administrators, or human resource specialists for to reduce the barriers that limit language proficiency.
Objects Study of Applied Linguistics
As mentioned above, that the object of study applied linguistic is solving real base language issues. For Example: human language which serves as a communication system that uses speech as a medium; human everyday language, the language used daily by humans as members of a particular community. This means the spoken language (spoken language) as the primary object of linguistics, whereas the written language (written language) as a secondary object of linguistics, because the written language can be said to be “derivatives” of spoken language.
Meanwhile, Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), -a linguist Swiss nationality who is considered the father of linguistic modernization assert that linguistic objects include “langue and parole”. Langue (UK; Linguistic disposition) is a language in general, as in the phrase “humans have language, whereas animals do not have language”. Langue (English; language) means specific languages such as English, Arabic, Indonesian and others. Parole is a concrete object of linguistics; langue is an object that has a more abstract, while langue is the object of the most abstract.
Science of Applied linguistic:
WHY Applied Linguistic Is More Close To Scientific Method
- The science of language; and in this case, the term language is used in the sense of metaphorical or figurative. Examples of science that fall into this category are signs and para linguistic. Sign is the science of body movement, gesture body language, such as head nods, hand signals and others. Para-linguistic is the science that focuses on specific activities that accompany pronunciation, like sigh, clicking sound, laughing, coughing a little, and forms stunned as well, so and so, what is it, what is it and so forth.
- The sciences of the science of is studied that specialize in linguistics itself, just as the study of the history of linguistics, linguistic studies in the twentieth century and others.
- Language which is the object of applied linguistic includes aspects of the sound, the morpheme and the word, phrase and sentence as well as aspects of meaning.
- Branch of linguistics that studies aspects of language sounds is phonology. Morpheme or word level studied in morphology. The study level of phrases / sentences is called syntax, the study aspects of the meaning of language is studied in separate science called semantic.
- The term is often be mistaken by people. Most people consider the language includes all facilities that can be used as a means of communication such as writing, gesture, hand and lip movements are used by deaf and mute groups and others.
- Applied linguistic use both scientific methods such as inductive and deductive Now a day’s applied linguistics focuses on “HOW works approach” for language research. That means we can use mix method for language Research.
- Inductive method is used in preparing the generalizations of the results of the study that were taken from observations deep.
- While the deductive method is used during a linguist wants to test the validity of theories or laws that have been established before he undertook research.
- Research in applied Linguistic is the science that is always pay attention to the new findings.
- This means those who say himself a linguist must be open minded and continue to accept new truths from the existing linguistic research. When a linguist researches the language and make conclusions on his research, he should not assume conclusion as the final truth. What is true at a given moment is not necessarily considered to be true at other times due to new evidence or data that is aborting.
- Relationship with Applied Linguistics Language Learning:
As we already mention the course of applied linguistics is close to education. If we suppose that the linguistic and teaching as two poles, then between the two poles there is need for a connector that can serve both as well as possible.
For the benefit of language teaching, applied linguistics is focused on:
- Strong focus on the solving real life language issues.
- The various possibilities and alternatives for to guide the implementation of language teaching.
- Giving a proper guide and research on the principles of teaching foreign languages, including approaches, methods and techniques.
- Help in developing the content, and material language will be taught based on a detailed description of the language, including how to present.
- Linguistics is an autonomous science. The theory of language can be applied to language teaching.