Without knowing these 5 Types of Crises, no government can do more than survive for a few years. Public policies cannot be developed and implemented because of the day-to-day need for physical survival. Political development becomes impossible under such circumstances. Too many developing countries face a brutal and extended internal war, which is an intolerable drain on already limited resources.
5 Important Types of Crises In Country Which Must be Tackled
1. The identity crisis is surmounted when a people within a given territory feel a sense of group identity, recognizing that this is their national territory. It can be described as a sense of togetherness and the absence of significant separatist pressures. It is similar in many respects to the political integration problem discussed earlier.
2. The legitimacy crisis refers to popular acceptance of the constitutional nature of the political system or the commonly accepted rules of the game. Legitimacy also is related to the responsibilities or functions of a government and the popular feeling about whether government is effectively doing what it should be doing, that is, taking care of internal security, land reforms, new jobs, and health care.
3. The penetration crisis concerns the ability of government to influence ba-sic policies and decisions throughout the country. A government that is restricted to the major towns and a few of the main roads during the daylight hours will not be able to penetrate society effectively, carry out its work, and develop feelings of confidence and rapport between government officials and citizens.
4. The participation crisis is concerned with the number of people participating in the political system and the range of alternatives the individuals may consider when making political input. The participation crisis is worked out principally through the evolution of competitive elections, interest groups, and a political party system. Participation requires choice in terms of numbers of alternatives that can be popularly discussed and the opportunity to select between competing candidates in an election. In most developing countries if universal suffrage is bestowed almost immediately after independence, there is no question of formal participation. We might question, however, if this participation is really effective or whether voting is simply a controlled election with no choice arranged by the political elite.
5. The distribution crisis occurs as government attempts to encourage the distribution of goods and services throughout society, eliminating the more flagrant continuities and equalizing the benefits received by the population. Such undertakings as unemployment legislation, social welfare, and public parks tend to reduce gaps between the wealthy and the poor. Government may be active in providing opportunities for groups that previously had been at a disadvantage, such as through job quotas or scholarships. An industrialization program that provides help, even modestly, for the under- and unemployed is a form of distribution response.
Political systems cannot survive this systematic terrorism against a government infrastructure over a period of many years. Legitimacy in the developing countries requires young governments to win popular support by delivering outputs.