Anaphora is an element of speech that is used in reference to something that has already been said. For example: The director said the call. The pronoun “la” is referring to something that has already been said (“the director”).
It is one of the textual cohesion procedures , that is, the forms that we choose so that a discourse can be perceived as a unit and repetitions are avoided.
A similar procedure to the anaphora but with the opposite meaning is the cataphor , which is the use of a term in place of another that has not yet been used. For example: OBEY him your father.
Anaphoras and cataphoras can be pronouns , adverbs or sets of words, and are used in both written and oral language .
Anaphoras and cataphoras can function as rhetorical figures or as cohesive grammatical devices.
Anaphora as a grammatical resource
As a grammatical resource, anaphoric terms are those elements that have the function of avoiding the permanent repetition of words.
In both oral and written communication, reference is usually made to elements that have already been named before, and it would be very overwhelming for the speaker to have to repeat them over and over again, and for the listener, to listen to them.
For example: When you see your brother tell him that I want to talk to him . The pronoun “him” refers to “your brother” and is used to avoid repetition. The same sentence but without the use of anaphora would be: When you see your brother tell your brother that I want to speak to your brother.
- See also: Textual cohesion
Anaphora as a figure of speech
As a rhetorical figure, it is associated with the repetition of words and is a resource designed to increase the expressive power of a message. It is an aesthetic element that seeks to generate a sensation of rhythm and sound.
There is a tendency to use the copulative conjunction “and” to create a climate of persistence in poetry . If ‘ran and ran’ is indicated, it is understood that someone ran for a long time, which may have caused them fatigue and distress.
Many songs and poems feature anaphoras that become very popular. For example: Today I cut a flower and it was raining and raining.
- See also: Rhetorical figures
Examples of anaphora
- I would like you to remember me without crying or lamenting, I would like you to remember me for having made roads.
- We will fight for what we were. We will fight for what we will be.
- When life smiles at you and when life eludes you.
- Jump and jump all over the garden.
- Cry, cry, that men can do it.
- The sound of the soul, the sound of the sea.
- Walker there is no path, the path is made by walking.
- I went out down the avenue. I went out, and my dreams came out.
- Thinking, always thinking of her.
- Green I want you green. Green wind. Green branches.
- I do not forgive death in love, I do not forgive inattentive life.
- Here everything is known, here nothing is secret.
- See also: Reduplication
- You have to talk to Martín if you want to help him .
- Juan forgot his parliament . We notice it right away.
- I lost my wallet . And now, how the find?
- Bowling is my hobby, it is what allows me to relax.
- I’m at my sister’s and I’ll sleep here .
- I have no more secrets , and you all told everyone.
- There is Javier ! Yell at him that he is not listening.
- The protagonist dies as me it had advanced.
- Like my shirt ? I the gave Matthias.
- They closed the premises , they had to do what after the crisis.