- April 17, 2017
Political communication is a form of communication, in this case in the form of giving messages / information that occurs in the political system. The political system is related to the political power of the state, the communication activities of the actors of political activities, including government communication .
Political communication is used as a political science study. The following will describe some political communication theories, which Communication Experts take from various sources as your reference.
- Public Relations Theory
- Mass Communication Theory
- Da’wah Communication
- intercultural communication
- Syringe Theory
The Hypodermic Needle Theory is also called the bullet theory or transmission belt theory. This theory argues that all political messages conveyed to the public (especially) through the mass media must influence their readers and have a positive effect.
Readers are considered helpless and will passively accept the information. If according to the media it’s true, it must be true or something. One example of the application of this theory is image politics. (read also: communication philosophy )
- Government Communications
- the internet as a medium of communication
- Stone Head Theory
The Obstinate Audience Theory rejects the syringe theory. The stubborn theory argues that society is not passively accepting information and is able to oppose the media. The community has the ability to choose whether to absorb or resist all information directed at them. Communication is a transaction. The information received will be selected by conceptual filters, which ones are necessary and which are not.
- Political Communication
- language as a means of communication
- organizational communication
- Theory of Empathy and Homophile Theory
Empathy Theory and Homophile Theory argue that communication that is ’empathetic’ and is built on ‘equality’ (homophily) will be much more influential and effective. The process of ’empathy’ is carried out by the speaker by exploring the mindset of the target recipient of the information he conveys. Meanwhile, homophilia is carried out, for example, by providing information to masses who have the same age, race, religion, ideology, political views, and so on. (read: mass communication )
Also read: Branch of Communication Studies
- Needs Theory
According to the theory of needs, humans have levels of psychological needs, affection, security, appreciation and self-actualization that must be met. These needs depend on the personality the person acquired from an early age. Humans tend to prioritize the fulfillment of basic needs both physically and socially. Only after that, when basic needs have been met, people will turn to politics (read: communication psychology ).
- process of social interaction
- organizational communication patterns
- Usefulness and Satisfaction Theory
Uses and gratification theory focuses on individual behavior in using media to get satisfaction of needs. The determinants of the selection of messages and media based on this theory are the attitudes and behavior of the community. What do people do to the media, how do they use the media to find information, how do people feel, etc.
- Assertive Communication
- Agricultural Communication
- Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic theory argues that a person’s personality greatly influences that person’s behavior and political learning. There are two variations in this theory, namely personal and intrapersonal. Personal emphasizes the personality within, that humans act based on motives in their conscious and subconscious minds. Meanwhile, intrapersonal emphasizes the view that humans need to fulfill their needs in dealing with other people.
- communication ethics on the internet
- Visual Communication
- Trait Theory
The theory of nature suggests that every human being has unique and different characteristics from one another, and politics is a reflection of that individual’s nature. Everyone can be distinguished and compared based on their character scale. The focus of this theory is the tendency (based on traits) that determines a person’s behavior. (Read: Indonesian communication system )
- Type Theory
In type theory, humans are classified into several categories based on their dominant characteristics. Similar to Nature theory, Type theory also discusses individual behavior, but the focus of Type theory is the configuration of individual behavior, which differentiates it from other individuals.
In this theory, there are five types of groups that are grouped based on parental influence, namely the inactive, conventionalist, constructivist, activist, and marginalized or centered groups. (read also: interpersonal communication )
- Learning Communication
- Types of Social Interaction
- Phenomenological Theory
Phenomenological theory argues that the role of a person’s political personality can be better understood by describing that person’s direct role. The focus of research is on how a person responds to an object based on how a person experiences the world subjectively (feelings, sensations, fantasies).
Read also: organizational communication
- The Circle of Silence Theory
The theory of silence circle (Spiral Of Silence Theory) argues that behind the power of media that can create public opinion, it will raise opinions that are not in line with the public opinion; opinions that develop in secret and are latent. The opinion develops in a circle of silence, at a lower level not visible from the surface.
- Cultivation Theory
Planting theory suggests the greatness of the media, especially television, in instilling something in the psyche of the audience, which will affect the person’s attitude and behavior. For example, news about the kidnapping and mutilation of a child’s organ that is constantly seen by a mother can make the mother overprotective of the child, so that she does not allow her child to play outside for fear of the child being kidnapped.
- The Role of Political Communication Media
- Social Media Effects
The implementation of this theory is also done a lot in politics, for example by bringing up shows of pairs of candidates for regional heads surrounded by many supporters or the like on television. However, what is very regrettable is that if the broadcast is a hoax or public fraud, thus instilling a wrong perception in the audience, it is also against the law (read: communication ethics ).
- communication barriers
- non verbal communication
- Interpersonal Communication Theory
- Critical Media Theory
In Critical Media theory, it is stated that the function of mass media in society is much influenced by politics, economy, culture and history of society. The focus of Critical Media theory is the context of society, what functions the mass media should perform in society (see also: effective communication ).
- Information and Nonverbal Theory
Information and Nonverbal Theory suggests that acting is the same as communicating. In terms of politics, taking political action is the same as conducting political communication. Actions in political communication can be interpreted differently by the people who see them. This pattern of action is then studied as a guideline for determining the political communication action taken. This pattern is used as a prediction of future reactions.
Read: Social Media Influences
- Adoption Theory
The focus of research in Adoption theory is human attention to how a person’s thoughts, feelings, ideas, and tendencies are obtained. This attention is adopted by means of social learning. For example, to get the desired and undesirable reactions political opponents under certain circumstances.
Read also: communication principles .
- Theory of Change
The Theory of Change emphasizes the mental processes involved in individuals that explain the changes that occur in a person’s initial thinking. These changes occur when someone does social learning. Social learning theory is a theory about how a person gains beliefs, values, etc. from their experiences with certain people, objects, or events (see also: introduction to communication science ).
Thus this article on political communication theory. You can also read communication theory according to experts , as well as other communication theories such as new media theory , public relations theory , and more at Communication Experts. May be useful!