Interviews can be interpreted as a way to collect data or information, where the method is to collect data obtained from respondents who have been targeted or have been assigned.
The method itself is by doing questions and answers based on a systematic way or with the goals to be achieved and carried out.
According to Djumhur and Surya, 1985 interview can be defined as a technique for collecting data by communicating with data sources.
Communication can be done by means of dialogue or by conducting verbal questions and answers, either directly or indirectly. Interviews can also be interpreted as a method of being able to obtain data by making direct contact with informants through face to face relations (Walgito)
In an interview, tips for answering interviews are usually carried out , in order to get data collection techniques if the researcher wants to do a preliminary study to be able to find problems that must be researched and also to find out things from a respondent that is more in-depth and for respondents in a small number.
In psychology itself, interviews are often carried out with various purposes, as for the purpose and function of interviews in psychology which can be obtained in a psychology, including:
- Creating a good relationship
In this case, of course, what is called an interview must indeed involve the subject and also the interviewer, in these meetings there can usually be something called anxiety and also with fear which can make it possible to express an attitude and also a feeling in a free way, and sometimes there is also a defense mechanism of a statement.
- Can relieve a tension
In the interview, there must be tension, therefore usually in this case the subject being carried out for the interview can bring some tension or emotion that is difficult to control, so that between the two of them must be able to try to relieve any tension that occurs.
- Get the information you need
In an interview, the objective of the interview is to collect data so that you can get the information needed, so in this case both parties really have to get an opportunity to get the information you need later.
- Self understanding
In all interview subjects, there is usually a much better self-understanding, and usually there is also an ability and talent that can develop in a perfect way, so that by conducting interviews, of course the interview subjects can understand more about themselves.
- Can select
By conducting an interview, of course, a selection can be made on applicants in a position, where in this case the goal is to be able to get a position that is offered, interviews also usually have the purpose of selecting interviews from the placement of employees carried out, for example during promotions, assignments or there is a change in the organizational structure.
- Knowing the respondent’s behavior
In this case the interview can be conducted and has the aim of knowing the behavior of the respondent, for example, when setting up a company or in an education, so that both parties carry out a performance tracking process with the same goal.
- Review the interviewer’s behavior
By conducting an interview, it is also possible to know or correct an action of the interviewer, for example, with a complaint from a client or respondent.
In this case the purpose of the interview is to be able to strengthen or change the thoughts, feelings or actions of the other party, in a persuasive interview in an informal form, for example to a friend who will persuade another friend to be able to attend a certain meeting.
- Digging information
The general thing that is usually known by most people is by digging for information, so that by obtaining information, it is usually used as a complement to data or collection that is used as research.
- Counseling techniques
Another purpose of the interview can also be to get results for something useful, for example by testing the counseling techniques performed by the counselor.
So that with the basic techniques of counseling psychology in the interview, you can find out the results presented by research materials or advanced materials to solve client problems.
- Knowing psychological problems.
Conducting an interview can also be said to be a link between psychology, one of the ways to get results from a question that is raised, for example by knowing the psychological problems that occur.
- Know the response from the group
The existence of an interview can also be more aware of the responses given by a group, so that in this case you can do other things or respond from a way that is done to find out the response of a group that is carried out in it.
In addition, the techniques and types of interviews in psychology can also be distinguished according to the function they perform, including:
- Primary interview, this current interview has a function as an only thing or a tool that can be done as a way to collect data
- Research interview, this one interview is an interview that is conducted and is used in order to test whether a truth or the consistency of data or information is carried out and collected in other ways. for example by means of observation and questionnaires.
- Complementary interviews, in this case the interview conducted has a function to complement other data collection tools as well, so that she can better know the results of the interview.
- Direct interviews, in this case an interview is carried out by taking information from someone so that they can get information about the person being asked for information
- Non-direct interviews, for this type, usually interviews are conducted by being able to obtain information about the occurrence of the interview regarding the interview.
- Incidental interviews, from interviews that can be conducted at any time if deemed necessary.
- Planning interview, this one interview is indeed conducted to plan at a predetermined time, so that the interview is conducted according to the plan in advance. so that for this one interview, planning must be done first