Communication theory is a theory or material that has been conveyed and presented to study related to talking with other individuals or conveying information to the receiver. This can be studied in public universities or study tutorials on linguistics or public relations .
- Bormansaid that communication theory is a term for all conversations and analysis that is made consciously and systematically, related to communication.
- Little John added that communication theory is a theory or a set of “collective thoughts” found in the whole theory. Especially with regard to the communication process.
- Cragan and Shields conclude that communication theory is a relationship between theoretical concepts that contribute to giving, as a whole or so, information, explanation, information, judgment or prediction of human action based on communicators (people) communicating (speaking, writing, reading, listening, watching, etc.) for a period of time through the media.
Also read: communication theory according to experts
The types of Public Relations communication theory include:
- Self Presentation Theory
This self-presentation theory emphasizes our own appearance as informants or conveyors of information. This is generally paid more attention to a promoter, presenter, or public relations when delivering or presenting something to the receiver or audience.
An informant is obliged to maintain and arrange the appearance as best and as possible so that the receiver is interested in paying attention to what is being said. Because, receivers tend to use their eyes first to receive information.
As an example from the case of a promoter or public relations who wears neat and decent clothes when he stands in front of a receiver or audience when presenting his company or product. The goal is to make it appear that the company or product he is presenting is worthy and worthy of collaboration. Because, appearance shows the characteristics of a person or company being presented.
- New Media Theory
- Communication Ethics
- Effective Communication
- Action Collection Theory
This theory has been discovered and developed by John Green . This theory of preparation of actions is a theory which will be used when providing information and as a test of how we organize knowledge in thoughts and experiences.
Thus, information will be formed using well organized knowledge. This is very necessary so that we do not overdo it or talk outside the topic of discussion. Because the knowledge we have is very much and various kinds of knowledge are in our memory. So, we don’t carelessly use and issue knowledge so that we don’t talk off-topic. (Also read: Social Communication )
In general, the knowledge that often comes out of our mouth is knowledge that we often remember, this is known as a procedural record or procedural record. Procedural record is a set of connections between nerves in a network of actions and are connected automatically. So, as a public relations person, it is necessary to formulate actions or compile the knowledge that is in his memory.
Sometimes, a public relation experience dependence on the knowledge accumulated in memory. This is a disease that an informant has so that he will talk off the track. And it can happen without our awareness until we have spoken, “What was I talking about?”
There is no knowledge or action that can stand alone, so it is necessary to have cooperation between actions and the ability to control oneself efficiently and quickly. Doing so will take time and effort. This theory of structuring actions may also be called microcognitive theory because it deals with very specific cognitive settings.
Also Read: Intercultural Communication
- Theory of Action Speech
This theory is connected with Jhon Searle’s theory of how humans can understand through the arrangement of words. As an example, if someone talks “I will meet you”, then there will be several premises including:
- First: (action unfolds) The person has conveyed the statement by arranging the words into a simple sentence. (Also read: Philosophy of Communication)
- Second: (proposed action) The person has confirmed something that is believed to be true so that other people believe it. (Also read: Communication Management)
- Third: (the act of doing) The person has undertaken something.
This act of speaking sometimes also has a persuasive nature or an invitation and influence. So, a receiver will understand the words and act according to the words. In this theory, a concrete knowledge is not the main source. Searle also describes five types of speech acts, including:
- (Stating and Affirming), astatement that binds the informant to encourage the truth of a problem. (Also read: Cross-Cultural Communication )
- (Orders and Requests), Instructionsfor the receiver to do what the informant said.
- (Promise and swear), the attachment that occurs by the informant on the next action.
- (Request and Pronunciation),Deliver some psychological aspects of the condition of the topic of conversation.
Searle himself said that there is a meaning behind a simple word. This act of speaking will not succeed if it is not properly understood.
Also read: Introduction to Communication Studies
- Plan Theory
This planning theory is something that exists before action, thinks about problems that will exist, is oriented for the future according to empiricism. Thus, this planning theory is very influential and interrelated with the future, both long and short term, with an integrated action. (Also read: Indonesian Communication System )
Planning theory in general can change a situation to achieve the intended purpose and it requires analysis, policy, and design or hypothesis. And a special feature of this planning theory is held with the aim of solving problems in the future through certain stages. The stages include:
- Problem Identification.
- Formulation of General and Specific Goals.
- Projection of Conditions in the Future.
- Search for Possible Hypotheses.
- (Also read: Communication Barriers )
Although this theory of planning is structured through neat steps, if it is not followed with the right conditions in planning, the results will not solve the problem. These requirements include:
- Logic makes sense.
- Flexible or Effective.
These conditions are made in order to avoid constraints, irregular dynamics, common interests, and prevailing norms. And the factors include natural and human resources, ideology, targets or targets, policies, methods, and existing conditions.
Also read: Interpersonal Communication
- Symbolic Convergence Theory
The theory of symbolic convergence has been put forward by Bales and developed by Ernest Bormann with a group of students from the University of Minnesota (1960-1970). This theory puts more emphasis on puns into stories, analogies, and speeches that liven up the atmosphere.
So, this theory is more often used when ice breking or a speech that raises anecdote. Sometimes this theory is used as a tool of intimacy between individuals. They will dramatize and fantasize for the intimacy between individuals.
Also read: Organizational Communication
- Conversation Rules Theory
Paul Grice presents the theory of rules of conversation which explains that conversation must be logical and easy to understand. If the conversation creates ambiguity and confusion for a receiver, then an informant is considered a failure in conveying information. Then, to achieve logical conversation success, there are four kinds of rules that must be done, including:
- Quality words.
- Words that are quantity but do not dominate, dominate are necessary when they fit into place.
- Relevant sayings.
- Behavioral words.
Also read: Mass Communication
- Functional Theory
Actually, functional is not a theory, but a perspective that can be used as a theoretical basis or basis. So, this function emphasizes more on the purpose of the informant to convey information to the receiver. Like a promoter or public relations who convey information to a receiver to be interested in the company being promoted or presented.
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- Face Negotiation Theory
This theory emphasizes the language that occurs and is created from our faces as informants. Our faces cannot lie to a receiver. So it is necessary to have a face negotiation theory which is how a person from a different culture can manage facial expressions that can influence one’s persuasion or interest. (Also read: Visual Communication )
- Organizational Democracy Theory
This theory has been written by Morisson, which has the meaning of studying performance in an organization, one of which discusses how an organization carries out its functions and actualizes the vision and mission of the organization. The organization will be formed when there is interaction with each other in achieving common goals. Five aspects of organization include:
- Organizations are created through communication.
- Organizational activities serve to achieve common goals.
- Communication activities can create patterns of organizational life.
- The communication process creates organizational character.
- Organizational patterns remove barriers.
Read also: communication principles
- Image Theory
According to Frank Jefkins , the definition of image in the context of public relations, image is defined as an impression, image, or an appropriate impression. The right impression is intended as a statement that is in accordance with reality. This impression is a form of the existence of various policies of personnel or services of an organization or company.
Then, there are four components of image formation, including:
- Perception,is the result of observations of environmental elements. Each individual will provide meaning according to the perception of the existing stimuli based on the experiences at hand. Then, the process of presenting this can continue to the image formation process. Therefore, individual perceptions or views will be positive if the information provided produces individual cognition.
- Cognition,a self-belief that comes from the individual. This stimulus will arise when individuals are required to receive information that is able to influence cognitive development.
- Motivation,The existence of response movement. The motive is the individual’s personal state which is driven from the desires and desires that arise from within. This impulse causes reactions in the form of actions to carry out certain activities to achieve goals.
- Attitude, An action to do something, think, interpret, or perceive. This attitude arises when you have to face objects, ideas or situations as well as values.
(Also read: Organizational Communication Patterns )
Benefits of Studying Public Relations Communication Theory
From the theories above and the benefits of studying communication theory about public relations, an informant such as public relations, promoters, even someone who is important in the company is really needed . This refers to the existence of different patterns of human thought, resulting in conflicts of misunderstanding. Therefore, the things above are needed to reduce or even eliminate communication conflicts.