10 Health Benefits of Orange


  • Orange – description and characteristics. How oranges grow
  • Orange leaves

  • Roots

  • Flowers

  • Fruit

  • Peel

  • Ripening terms

  • How long does an orange grow?

  • Where do oranges grow?
  • Types and varieties of oranges, photos and names
  • Orange hybrids, photos and names
  • Calorie content of an orange
  • Orange: benefits and harms

  • Beneficial features

  • Harm and contraindications

  • Homemade orange, varieties and photos
  • How to grow an orange from a seed at home?
  • Landing

  • Lighting and temperature

  • Watering

  • Top dressing

  • Diseases of oranges, photo
  • Interesting facts about orange

Orange ( Citrus sinensis ) is a species of flowering plants of the dicotyledonous class, of the order of sapindocytes, of the rue family, of the genus citrus. Orange is a cultivated hybrid form, most likely bred by crossing a mandarin and a pomelo.

The orange got its name thanks to the Dutch word appelsien or the German Apfelsine, which translates as ” apple from China”, “Chinese apple”.

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Orange – description and characteristics. How oranges grow

The orange plant is a fairly powerful evergreen tree, the height of which depends on the variety: vigorous orange varieties grow up to 12 m in height, dwarf forms are about 4-6 m in height, trees for indoor growing reach 2-2.5 m in height. The most compact orange trees grow up to 60-80 cm.

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Orange leaves

The orange tree has a dense dense crown of a round or pyramidal shape, and its shoots often grow thorns up to 8-10 cm long.Orange leaves are dark green, dense, oval in shape with a sharp tip, growing up to 15 cm long and about 10 cm wide The edge of the leaf can be wavy, and at the very surface of the leaf there are special glands containing aromatic oil. One leaf lives for about 2 years, and on an orange tree, old and young leaves grow simultaneously, performing different functions. Young orange leaves are responsible for photosynthesis, with their help the tree breathes, while the old leaves are a reservoir for nutrients. The period of intensive leaf fall (about 25%) occurs in February and March; the orange tree loses another quarter of its old leaves during the year.

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Orange roots, unlike other fruit trees, do not have root hairs needed to absorb moisture and nourish from the soil. But on the roots there are special capsules with colonies of special soil fungi that form mycorrhiza with orange roots. Orange supplies the mushrooms with amino acids and carbohydrates, and in return receives moisture and minerals, which the mushrooms provide in a form that is easily assimilated for the plant. The overgrown mycelium of fungi does not tolerate drought, lowering soil temperatures and exposing the roots on which it grows, so oranges are very demanding on moisture, heat and suffer greatly when transplanted without a clod of earth.

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An orange has large bisexual flowers of white or pink color, up to 5 cm in diameter, single or growing in inflorescences of 6 pieces. Flower buds are laid in early spring, flowers can stay in the bud stage for about a month, then open at a temperature of 16-18 degrees and bloom for about 2-3 days.

Photo by: Alexander Hardin

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The fruit of an orange is called an orange. It is round or oval in shape and has a structure typical of other citrus fruits. Such a fruit, which comes from the upper ovary, is called hesperidium (one of the varieties of berry-like fruit). Thus, the fruit of an orange is a fruit and a berry.

Photo by: Atamari

Orange pulp consists of 9-13 separating slices covered with a thin film. Each lobule contains many sap-filled sacs that are formed from the inner epidermis of the carpels.

The taste of orange pulp can be sweet, sweet and sour, or bitter.

Some fruits do not produce seeds, but most oranges still contain multi-embryonic seeds arranged in a wedge above each other.

Photo by: Lucis

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Smooth or porous orange peel is up to 5 mm thick, its top layer, flavedo (zest), contains many rounded glands filled with essential oil. The white, spongy layer that covers the inside of the skin is called albedo. Due to its loose structure, the orange pulp quite easily falls behind the skin. In accordance with the variety and stage of ripeness, the orange peel makes up from 17 to 42% of the total fruit weight. Orange peel color can be greenish, pale yellow, bright orange and orange-red.

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Ripening terms

Orange is a remontant plant capable of re-flowering and fruit-setting, so an orange tree can simultaneously contain buds, flowers and fruits at different stages of ripeness. Ripening of oranges lasts about 8-9 months, and ripe fruits can remain on the branches for a long time, and in the spring they turn green again, and by autumn they acquire a characteristic orange color. The seeds of fruits that ripen within 2 seasons are of better quality, but the pulp loses its taste and useful properties.

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How long does an orange grow?

The orange tree grows rapidly (annual growth is about 40-50 cm) and begins to bear fruit 8-12 years after planting. The life cycle of an orange tree is about 75 years, although individual specimens live up to 100-150 years and produce about 38 thousand fruits in a productive year.

Where do oranges grow?

The homeland of the orange is Southeast Asia (China), in the 16th century the exotic fruit came to Europe, and then to Africa and the USA. Today, the orange is widely cultivated in many regions of the tropical and subtropical climatic zones, and the leaders in the export of fruits are Brazil, China and the USA. Spain, Italy, India, Pakistan, Argentina, Morocco, Syria, Greece, Egypt and Iran are slightly behind.

Photo by: José Reynaldo da Fonseca

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Types and varieties of oranges, photos and names

According to the rate of ripening, orange varieties are divided into:

  • Early;
  • Medium early;

Depending on the size, shape, taste, color of the fruit and pulp, orange varieties are divided into 2 main groups:

  1. Light oranges (with orange pulp);
    • Ordinary (oval) oranges;
    • Umbilical oranges;
  2. Regular oranges (with reddish flesh).

A more detailed description of this classification is given below.

Ordinary or oval oranges are a large group of high-yielding varieties that are characterized by round or oval fruit shapes and tasty, sweet and sour, bright yellow flesh containing many seeds. The size of the oranges is medium to large, and the skin is thin, pale orange or yellow, well fused with the pulp. The most famous varieties of common oranges:

  • Hamlinis an early-ripening variety of oranges with small or medium-sized fruits of a round or slightly flattened shape and a thin, even skin of yellow color. It is grown mainly in Brazil and the USA, has excellent transportability and has a long shelf life, is actively used in indoor floriculture;
  • Vernais a late variety of oranges of Spanish origin, with medium-sized or medium-sized low-seeded elongated fruits containing sweet, tasty pulp;
  • Salustianais a late-ripening variety of oranges of high economic importance in Spain and Morocco. The fruit is characterized by an oval-spherical or slightly flattened shape and a yellow-orange color of a thin, easily peeled peel. The juicy slices are pitted and have a sweet, oily flavor.

Photo by: Jorma Koskinen

Umbilical oranges (Navel) are a group of varieties in which trees do not grow thorns, and the fruits have a characteristic mastoid outgrowth-navel at the top, a reduced second fruit. Umbilical oranges are the largest, the average fruit weight is about 200-250 g, and some specimens weigh up to 600 g. A distinctive feature of most varieties is also a rough, easily peeled peel and exceptional consumer qualities: juicy, orange pulp, sweet taste with slight sourness and exquisite citrus aroma. The most popular varieties of navel oranges are:

  • Washington Navel (Washingtoh Navel)is a variety of bright orange oranges of important world economic value, known since the 17th century, and also one of the few oranges that successfully bear fruit in the Caucasus. Medium and large orange fruits have a round or slightly elongated shape and a mass from 170 to 300 g. The pulp of oranges is bright orange, sweet with a slight sourness and few seeds. Washington Navel orange is one of the popular varieties for home breeding;
  • Navel Late– a late variety of oranges, very similar to the Washington Navel variety, but with a more tender pulp and increased keeping quality;
  • Thomson Navel (by Thomson navel )– sort of round or oval oranges with a characteristic little navel and a relatively thin, light orange peel with fine pores. The pulp of the fruit, compared to Washington Navel, is more fibrous and less juicy;
  • Navelinais the earliest variety of small to medium sized oranges with a small navel. Rounded or ovoid fruits have a thin, finely pored orange-colored rind and a friable, sweet flesh.
  • Of particular note is the Cara Cara navel orange, which is a mutation of the Washington Navel variety and was found in Venezuela in 1976. Kara-Kara has inherited most of the characteristics of the original variety: the navel, the orange color of the well-separable zest and the exceptional taste of juicy pulp. But its main difference is the flesh of a ruby ​​hue, comparable to the color of the flesh of the darkest grapefruits. An interesting feature of the variety is the ability to produce a certain number of variegated shoots, on which striped fruits subsequently develop.

Photo Credit: Holly

Bloody orange, king orange or blood orange are a group of varieties containing anthocyanins, pigments that give the fruit and its pulp a blood red color. Bloody orange is also called Sicilian orange, since the first landings appeared in Sicily. The king orange is a natural mutation of the regular orange. Trees of this varietal group are distinguished by long ripening periods, low growth and an elongated crown. Bloody orange fruits are characterized by a rounded, slightly ribbed shape and poorly detachable brown, red or dark orange peel. The flesh of the korolka is distinguished by its red, orange, burgundy or red-striped color, and the fruits are especially appreciated for their exquisite sweet and sour taste and excellent aroma. According to historians, blood oranges have been cultivated in Sicily since the 9th-10th centuries. They are currently cultivated throughout Italy, Spain, Morocco, and the American states of Florida and California.

There are 3 main varieties of blood oranges:

  • Moro orange ( Moro )– a fairly young variety, bred at the beginning of the XIX century in Sicily in the province of Syracuse. The peel of a blood orange is orange or reddish orange in color, and the flesh is orange with bloody veins, bright crimson or almost black. Fruit diameter from 5 to 8 cm. Weight 170-210 grams. Moro oranges have a strong citrus aroma with hints of raspberries or wild berries and a bitter aftertaste.
  • Sanguinello orange

native to Spain, similar to the Moro orange and cultivated in the Northern Hemisphere. The fruits of the blood orange are distinguished by an orange peel with a reddish tint, sweet red flesh with red spots, which contains a few seeds. The fruits ripen from February to March.

  • Tarocco orange

is considered one of the most popular Italian varieties and is believed to be the product of a natural mutation of the Sanguinello orange. Tarocco oranges are medium in size, have a thin orange-red skin and do not have a pronounced red pigmentation of the pulp, therefore they are called “half-breeds”. Juicy, sweet taste, pitted and high in vitamin C, Tarocco red oranges are among the most sought after varieties in the world. Cultivated on fertile soils in the vicinity of Mount Etna.

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Orange hybrids, photos and names

Crossing the orange with other citrus species has given rise to a number of interesting hybrid forms.

Tsytranzh ( Citroncirus Webberi )

a hybrid of sweet orange and three-leaf poncirus, the purpose of which was to develop a cold-resistant orange. Citrange tolerates a drop in air temperature to -10 degrees, but its fruits have a bitter taste. Citrange is commonly used in the preparation of drinks, marmalade or jam.

Photo by Ralph and Kathy Denton

Photo Credit: Julian W. Sauls

Citrange ( Citroncirus Citrangequat )

a hybrid of citrange and kumquat, it is a compact tree, sometimes with small thorns, giving round or oval fruits with an elongated neck. It is eaten fresh or used to make marmalade and lemonade.

Thomasville citrangequat

one of the types of citranquat, a hybrid of orange, kumquat Margarita and three-leaf poncirus. Fruits are yellow or yellow-orange in color, medium size, oval or pear-shaped. The peel is thin and bitter, the flesh with a small number of seeds, very sour when unripe, becomes quite edible when fully ripe.

Clementine ( Citrus clementina )

a hybrid of mandarin and orange peel. The fruits of the hybrid are visually similar to mandarin, but differ in a firmer skin, rich sweet taste and juicy pulp. The second variety of clementine is a hybrid of tangerine and bitter Seville orange, bred in Algeria in 1902. The fruits are small, orange, with a hard skin.

Clementines are usually divided into three types:

  • Corsicanclementine – its fruits are of medium size, covered with an orange-red peel, the pulp is fragrant, there are no seeds in it;
  • Spanishclementine can have both small and larger fruits with a bright orange pulp with a sour taste. The fruit contains from two to ten seeds;
  • MontrealClementine is a rare citrus with sour fruits containing 10-12 seeds.

Photo Credit: CarolSpears

Santina (ang. Suntina )

hybrid of clementine and orlando. Medium to large, bright orange fruits with thin skin, sweet taste and strong aroma. The ripening period is from the end of November to March.

Tangor (ang. Tangor , temple orange )

the result of crossing sweet orange and tangerine. Fruits are medium to large, can reach 15 cm in diameter. The shape of the fruit is slightly flattened, the peel is of medium thickness, porous, yellow or deep orange in color. The availability of seeds depends on the variety of tangora Tangor pulp is very aromatic, orange, has a sour or sweet-sour taste.

Photo by: Kaldari

Ellendale (ang. Ellendale tangor )

citrus hybrid, a variety of tangor, obtained by crossing tangerine, mandarin and orange. Citrus is native to Australia. Fruits are medium to large in size, juicy, with a reddish-orange peel and very sweet, fragrant dark orange pulp. The rind is thin, smooth, easy to clean. Seeds may vary in quantity or be absent altogether.

Orangelo (English Orangelo ) or Chironja (Spanish Chironja )

believed to be a natural hybrid of grapefruit and orange. The homeland of the fruit is Puerto Rico. The fruits are large, the size of a grapefruit, have a slightly elongated or pear-shaped. When ripe, the peel is bright yellow, thin and smooth, quite easily separated from the pulp. There are few seeds. The pulp is orange-orange, tender, juicy. The taste is sweeter, similar to orange and lacks the bitterness of grapefruit.

Photo Credit: Gene Lester

Fruit-angles or angles (ang. Ugli fruit )

it is the result of crossing a mandarin, grapefruit (or pomelo) and an orange. Agli fruits grow in Jamaica, they are not too beautiful in appearance due to the rough and wrinkled skin. The diameter of the fruit ranges from 10 to 15 cm. The color of the fruit ranges from green to yellow-green to orange. Despite some unattractiveness, the pulp of the agli fruit is very tasty and has a grapefruit note. The fruiting period is from December to April.

Grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi )

according to scientists, it is a natural hybrid of orange and pomelo. The fruits are large, with a diameter of 10 to 15 cm, with a juicy sweet and sour pulp with a slight bitterness. The color of the pulp, depending on the variety, can be almost white, light pink, yellow or reddish. The rind is yellow or reddish.

Photo by Evan-Amos

Meyer’s lemon ( Citrus meyeri )

presumably the result of hybridization of lemon with orange or tangerine. Large fruits have a rounded shape; in mature form, the peel acquires a yellow-orange hue. The pulp is dark yellow in color, juicy and not as sour as regular lemon, contains seeds.

Photo Credit: Debra Roby

Нацудайдай (Нацумикан, Аманацу) (анг. Amanatsu , natsumikan ).

natural hybrid of orange and pomelo (or grapefruit). The plant was first discovered in Japan in the 17th century. The fruit has a fairly thick yellow-orange peel, it is eaten fresh, but its juicy pulp tastes quite sour. The fruit contains many seeds.

Author photo: Monado

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Calorie content of an orange

100 g of orange contains 36 kcal.

Nutritional value of an orange per 100g:

  • Proteins – 0.9 g;
  • Fat – 0.2 g;
  • Carbohydrates – 8.2 g;
  • Water – 87 g.

Orange: benefits and harms

Beneficial features

The exceptional popularity of the orange is due not only to the excellent taste of its fruits, but also to the unique chemical composition with a high content of nutrients found in pulp, juice, zest and seeds. The main advantage of an orange is its high content of vitamin C (50 mg per 100 g), because 150 g of an orange satisfy a person’s daily need for ascorbic acid. Orange fruits have a general strengthening effect on the body and increase immunity.

Orange contains a number of vitamins and minerals necessary for the human body:

  • Vitamins B, A, PP, E;
  • Minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc);
  • Pectins;
  • Phytoncides;
  • Anthocyanins;
  • Sugar;
  • Citric and salicylic acid;
  • Orange essential oil.

A balanced combination of nutrients makes it possible to use oranges in the complex treatment of a number of pathological conditions:

  • obesity;
  • colds and various viral diseases, high fever;
  • anemia, anemia, weakness, loss of appetite;
  • chronic constipation;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • hypertension;
  • gout;
  • liver disease;
  • cinga;
  • periodontal disease and bleeding gums;
  • gastritis and low stomach acidity;
  • vascular and heart diseases;
  • urolithiasis disease;
  • lead poisoning;
  • increased nervous irritability.

In order not to lose essential oils, bioflavonoids and pectins, which are rich in zest and seeds, it is recommended to squeeze oranges whole for juice.

Orange leaves purify the air and saturate the room with phytoncides, which have a detrimental effect on various pathogenic bacteria. This property is one of the factors in favor of growing oranges at home.

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Harm and contraindications

  • Orange is one of the strongest plant allergens, so allergy sufferers, young children and nursing women should eat fruit with caution.
  • Also, oranges are contraindicated for everyone who suffers from severe chronic diseases of internal organs or has a stomach ulcer.
  • The high sugar content of an orange can be harmful to diabetics.

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Homemade orange, varieties and photos

The following varieties of oranges are considered the most popular for growing at home:

  • Torocco Rossois a Sicilian blood orange with golden red fruits and red pulp. This variety is characterized by a delicate aroma and soft, sweet and sour taste;
  • Navelinais a high-yielding variety of Spanish oranges, early fruiting and disease resistant. Medium-sized fruits have sweet, juicy, orange flesh with few seeds;
  • Vanillais a variety of oranges of Chinese origin, distinguished by medium-sized fruits of a yellowish-orange hue. At the time of flowering, orange trees fill the room with a heady aroma of citrus;
  • Pavlovsky– one of the best indoor varieties of orange, having a height of no more than 1 meter and strewn with delicious bright orange fruits;
  • Washington Navelis a low-growing orange variety that is great for indoor cultivation. The fruits are round, orange, tasty. The variety is unpretentious and cold-resistant.

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How to grow an orange from a seed at home?


You can grow an orange at home from a seed, and this method has some advantages over grafting and buying a ready-made seedling. An orange tree from a stone is distinguished by intensive growth, is stronger and stronger, forms a dense, beautiful crown, is rather unpretentious and has good disease resistance. The only drawback is that it begins to bear fruit at 8-10 years after planting and does not fully inherit the genetic characteristics of the parent tree.

For planting an orange, it is better to choose several seeds from different fruits, and plant the seeds immediately after extraction. Compared to tangerine, an orange is less picky about the composition of the soil, therefore, 1 part of peat and any flower soil are taken for planting. Also, for growing oranges from the seed, you can use ready-made soil for lemons, and the bottom of the container should cover the drainage with a layer of about 2 cm.

Orange seeds are sown in a seedling box or one seed at a time in tall plastic cups, dropping to a depth of 1-2 cm.At an air temperature of 18-22 degrees and good soil moisture, the sprouts will hatch in 2-3 weeks, even in the absence of a greenhouse.

After the appearance of 2 true leaves, weak shoots are removed, and strong specimens are transplanted into a pot with a diameter of about 10 cm, trying to preserve an earthen lump. To transplant a homemade orange, drainage and a mixture of humus and any flower soil must be used. The next transplant is carried out a year later and then annually, before entering fruiting, increasing the diameter of the pot by 2-3 cm.A pot with a volume of 8-10 liters will become a permanent container for an indoor orange grown from a seed, in which the topsoil must be renewed annually.

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Lighting and temperature

An orange tree at home is very demanding on good lighting and loves bright, but diffused sunlight, so it is recommended to plant the plant on the east or west window, since direct sunlight can cause leaf burns. Homemade orange feels good at air temperatures from +17 to + 28 degrees, but flowering and fruit setting occurs at a temperature of + 15-18 degrees.

In summer, the orange tree can be kept outdoors, in a place protected from drafts and the scorching sun. For a comfortable wintering, the plant is transferred to a cool room with an air temperature of + 12-14 degrees, for example, to a warmed loggia, and provide additional lighting. In the spring, during the budding period, the plant is kept at a temperature of about + 18 degrees. Often it is not recommended to rearrange and rotate the homemade orange tree, and for a uniform growth of the shoots, it is enough to turn the pot 10 degrees 3 times a month.

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Indoor orange loves water, but does not tolerate waterlogging – the soil in the pot turns sour, and the plant begins to ache. In summer, in heat, as well as during the heating season, an orange is watered once a day, the rest of the time – as the soil dries up. The tree also needs regular spraying and feeding.

Top dressing

Intensive feeding is required for homemade orange during the period of active growth: from early spring to mid-summer. Top dressing is carried out every 10 days, alternating special compositions for citrus fruits with complex mineral and organic fertilizers. Mineral dressing should contain 20 g of carbamide, 25 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water. As an organic fertilizer for an orange, mullein is used, diluted in a ratio of 1:10. Once a month, a pinch of potassium permanganate is added to the top dressing, and once every 3 months – iron sulfate, which will ensure the preservation of the color of the leaves.

Photo by: Jolly Janner

The normal growth of a seed-grown orange and the quality of fruiting largely depend on a well-formed crown. The first pinching of the central shoot is carried out when the tree grows to 30 cm. Weak lateral shoots are removed, leaving 3-4 of the strongest ones, and they also pinch: this way the tree will begin to branch. Next year, 2 shoots of the second order are left from the new growth, of which about 5 shoots of the third order are formed over time, after which horizontal fruit shoots will begin to develop.

In the first fruiting, it is better to remove the flowers and orange ovaries, leaving only 2-3 pieces, otherwise the tree will spend too much energy on ripening the fruits. In subsequent seasons, 10 or more fruits are left.

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Diseases of oranges, photo

Like any home-grown citrus fruit, oranges are susceptible to a number of diseases and pest attacks:

  • gummosisor gum flow

fungal disease of the orange, which can be caused by lack of drainage, deep planting or mechanical damage to the bark. In the affected tree, fragments of the bark die off, from which a yellow substance is released – gum. Infected areas are cleaned to healthy tissue, disinfected and covered with garden varnish;

Photo by: Dmitry (matievski)

  • anthracnose orange

a fungal disease that causes the death of shoots, yellowing and falling of orange leaves and ovaries. The affected parts of the plant are cut off, the cuts are treated with activated carbon, and the tree is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid;

  • scabbards

settle on the leaves and shoots of the orange tree, leading to their deformation, twisting and death. For control use insecticides of a wide spectrum of action (Aktara. Iskra), and pests are collected by hand.

  • yellowing and falling oforange leaves

may be caused by a lack or excess of moisture, excessive fertilizing, a sharp change in temperature or a banal draft. Some oranges do not react well to close proximity to the microwave and do not tolerate cigarette smoke.

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Interesting facts about orange

  • Orange, along with grapefruit, contains a unique plant flavonoid – naringenin, which can neutralize free radicals in the human body, which slows down the process of premature skin aging.
  • In Afghanistan, fried foods are generously poured with orange juice cut in half, making fatty foods easier to digest. In Jamaica, floors are wiped with halves of an orange, thereby neutralizing dirt and grease.
  • In the US state of California, it is illegal to eat oranges and take a bath at the same time. The fact is that the substances that make up bath oils in combination with orange acid can form an explosive mixture.
  • In ancient times, orange juice was considered an antidote to almost any poison, and there was also a belief that an orange tree could die if a woman touched it.


by Abdullah Sam
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