The immune system of the human body usually protects against infections and diseases. However, autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells that affect one or more parts of the body. There are more than eighty autoimmune diseases; the following are the few among them.
- Lupus Nephrite
Lupus nephritis is a kidney disease caused by systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks its cells and organs. As a result, the glomeruli (functional cells) become inflamed and over time can lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant as a treatment.
- Alopecia areata
Alopecia areata, which is also called localized baldness, is a disorder in which the hairs of the body die patchy or throughout the body. It is an autoimmune disease that causes permanent bald spots that over time, depending on the mental capacity of the affected individual, can lead to psychological stress.
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease that presents with some skin spots that lose pigment. The interested parts become white and the sharp edges characterize the spots. The event is mostly initiated by environmental elements, and the trick can be used to reduce psychological effects.
- Addison’s disease
Addison’s disease, also known as hypocortisolism and primary adrenal insufficiency, is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the adrenal glands produce less steroid hormones. The condition occurs when the adrenal glands have problems that lead to less production of their hormones: aldosterone and cortisol.
- Crohn’s disease
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects any section of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The condition is caused by a mixture of immune, bacterial and environmental factors in those people who are genetically predisposed. The body’s immune system attacks the GIT wall, perhaps with the intention of killing microbacterial antigens.
- Evans syndrome
Evans syndrome is a type of autoimmune disease in which the body’s antibodies fight platelets and red blood cells. The condition progresses pathologically as the co-appearance of autoimmune blood diseases: thrombocytopenic purpura and haemolytic anemia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a disease in which red blood cells are eaten by the body’s activated immune system, while in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune action destroys platelets.
- Arthritis Juveline
Juvenile arthritis is an autoimmune condition with no known cause, and is mostly declared juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The result of JIA is the inflammation of the joints with less effects on the cartilage and stability of the joint without rheumatoid characteristics. The symptoms that differentiate from other diseases are the prolonged swelling of the affected joints, which are mainly the ankle and wrist.
- Progressive inflammatory neuropathy
Progressive inflammatory neuropathy is an autoimmune disease that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published in its January 31, 2008 report. It was first reported in the United States among workers working on pig slaughterhouses. The disease presents with pain, sudden paralysis, fatigue, weakness and numbness, particularly in the extremities.
- Rigid person syndrome
The rigid person’s syndrome is a neurological condition that presents with a worsening of the rigidity and stiffness of the body. The truncal muscles are mostly affected by stiffness, accompanied by spasms that lead to abnormal positioning. The characteristics of the primary disorder manifest themselves along with lumbar hyperboleosis and the inability to move. The cause is not known, but the body’s antibodies called GADs are believed to play a role.
- Kawasaki disease
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels become inflamed. The main symptom is a fever that persists for at least five days and cannot be inferior with drugs, accompanied by red eyes and swollen lymph nodes. There is no known cause; however, it is assumed to be the results of the autoimmune response triggered by the infection.