What is Blood transfusion:It means an introduction of one person’s blood (Donor’s Blood) into vein of another person. (Recipient). As blood is a vital body fluid circulating rapidly from one part of body to other, great nursing care is taken during transfusion of blood to avoid unwanted spreading of disease and toxins.
Purpose of Blood Transfusion
In case of severe anaemia to provide or supplement more blood in circulation. In leukaemia where WBC, out numbers RBC and thereby reduce oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
- During major operation to supplement immediate blood loss.
- During or after severe haemorrhage of any cause to maintain blood volume and blood pressure.
- To provide platelets and other clotting factor in case of hemophilia.
- To provide antibodies and leukocytes in severely debilitated person
What is Blood transfusion, And Procedure For Blood Transfusion
The procedure is more or less similar to that of any intravenous infusion. The equipments required are same as in I.V. infusion. For collection of blood from a donor the following procedure is adopted.
- Ask the donor to lie down comfortably with stretching the hand at the side of the body.
- Select the cubical fossa for puncture of needle and clean this area with spirit swab.
- Make the collecting bottle ready with anti-coagulant solution 2% sod. citrate 30 ml, for 300 ml of blood.
- A sterile needle fitted with a sterile rubber tube is kept ready.
- Apply a tourniquet or cuff of blood pressure instrument to the upper arm.
- New insert the needle to puncture the vein
- Blood is drawn out and collected in a container bottle kept below the level of donor hands.
- While blood is being collected stir the blood with a sterile glass rod to mix well the anticoagulant solution
- The collected blood in bottle should be kept in warm water basin or bowl and cover it with sterile dressing
- The donor is kept lying for sometimes and then given hot coffee and some edibles.
The donor blood thus collected can be given to a recipient by the same procedure as I.V. infusion. The rate of drops is maintained low 20 to 30 drops initially and then gradually increasing to 40 to 50 drops per minute.
Never Shake a Blood Bottle
Now quickly introduce the tube into the new unit and release the clamp. See that the blood starts flowing through the indicator bulb drop by drop. Control the rate of flow. Care should be taken not to touch or contaminate the tubing needle while removing and introducing into new bottle. Never allow the blood completely exhausted from the bottle as there is possibility of air to flow into the blood vessel to cause air embolism.