Different Types of Teaching Methods are very important for every teacher.A teacher can collaborate work between people with different skills; which must necessarily be carried out in classroom.The teaching methods are varied where a teacher can set of procedures of learning activities. Following are some important teaching method which you must follow.
The Conversational method.
This is so called because the teaching takes the form of conversation, the lesson being divested of its usual formality, and becoming simply a pleasant chat about things. The teacher plays the part of a sympathetic friend, and endeavors to make the children feel quite at home. He talks in a free and easy way, suggests this or that, and supplies necessary information; but he does this with an absence of any evident desire to Instruct, so that the children forget that they are being taught, and do not feel learning to be drudgery. They are encouraged to talk without constraint, to state what they know, and to ask any questions they please ; while at the same time the teacher directs their thoughts and attention, puts frequent questions to them, and really guides the work at all points.
The spontaneous, simplicity, unconventionality, and pleasantness of the method render it especially suitable for employment with little children. With older pupils it forms a very agreeable change from the ordinary routine teaching of the school; and more or less it may often be advantageously introduced into object lessons, and others of a similar character. Some skill and judgment, however, are needed to carry it out with effect.
Many good examples of the “ conversational method ” may be found in books, especially in some of the best story-books for children ; but we must be on durguard against that sham conversational plan to be found in the ordinary “ question-and-answer books.” In these there is no true dialogue ; all the brightness, freedom, and naturalness of conversation are absent; and the information is presented in an entirely artificial and often pompous way, which is as unlike the skillful guidance of the child to think and discover for himself as anything can well be. To call the method in such a case “ Socratic,” as some writers of these books do, is an absurdity which is only equaled by the ignorance displayed in such a statement.
The method has advantage! beyond mere learning. The child will have to take his place as a unit in society, and it is important for him to be able to talk properly, as well as to listen. The plan should generate a love of knowing, and should train the child to communicate information to others with ease and correctness. “ Conversation,” says Bacon, “makes a ready man.” Some caution is needed, however, on the part of the teacher, to prevent random wandering from the subject, rashness of statement, or conceited forwardness of manner.
(2) Empirical Methods.
An empirical method is one based entirely on practical experience, one which has been found to answer by actual work and is adopted merely as a convenient “ rule of thumb,” without any effort being made to know why it succeeds, or to discover the limits of its application. Such methods, though based upon no scientific knowledge, may be correct enough when properly applied, and in given circumstances may answer well; but, as their underlying principles are not understood by those who employ them, they tend to become mechanical, and are often used in unsuitable cases. The great defect of methods employed in a non-intelligent way lies in the fact that they fail to meet the requirements of successful intellectual training, from the absence of the discrimination necessary for making the numerous small modifications which are sure to be needed in teaching.
The necessity in these days for rapidly educating our children, that they may get all the good possible in the short space of their school life, renders it incumbent on the teacher to employ those methods which will best fulfill the requirements of the case. The process of “ trial and error,” of blundering into knowledge by trying plan after plan till one is found to succeed, and then following it blindly, has had its day. The science of education however is yet to a great extent in its infancy, and we are by no means so sure of our ground as to entitle us to condemn all methods not founded on scientific laws. In fact, empirical methods are often deserving of careful investigation, and may guide the teacher to the discovery of new and useful educational principles.
(3) The Developing Method.
By this is commonly meant a method in which the essential feature is the direct exercise of the child’s faculties, with a distinct purpose, and in such a way that they may be naturally developed. The nature and powers of the child are carefully taken Into account at every stage, and the teaching adjusted accordingly ; mental action is aroused, the senses are largely appealed to, new truths are made to grow out of old ones, and, as far as possible, the pupils are led to discover facts for themselves, the teacher acting the part of guide and interpreter. The method is based upon psychological principles, as opposed to merely empirical processes.
In a somewhat narrower sense the term “ developing ” is sometimes applied to any method of teaching conducted in accordance with recognised principles, and for the most part carried on inductively, so that the lesson grows naturally outwards, and at every step affords training as well as information.The “developing method” was the outcome of the reaction, started by such men as Pestalozzi, against the artificial methods and narrow aims of the time; and was in the first instance elaborated into a scheme and applied to the teaching processes in Germany, mainly by Herbart and his followers. It is essentially the same method that is called by some French writers the “Oanttlo Method.”
(4) The Comparative Method.
This is rather a subsidiary method to be employed in conjunction with others, where any gain will result from its use, than one sufficiently complete and far-reaching in its application to be continuously employed. The distinguishing feature of the method, as its name implies, is the placing of one thing or series of facts alongside another, and the examining of the two in close connection. Its meaning should be widened to cover contrast or the noting of differences, as well as actual comparison or the discovery of points of agreement.
The examination of two things side by side greatly strengthens the impressions made by the details of each. Their mere contiguity is suggestive; and at the same time the keen observation and careful discrimination necessary to make out their resemblances and divergences, are of the greatest assistance in rendering the facts definite and exact, and are in themselves a training of a highly useful kind. This will perhaps be more fully recognized, when it is remembered that the discrimination of differences and the detection of similarities have been given as two of the three fundamentally distinct properties of intellectual action.
Where it can be judiciously employed the comparative method is of the greatest value, and it deserves to be far more extensively used than at present it appears to be. The process is almost always an interesting one to children, exciting their curiosity and keeping them active, if they are led, as they should be, to discover the points for themselves. In such subjects as history, geography, and natural science, the method is frequently useful; and wherever facts have to be taught inductively it naturally plays an important part.