Types of Government Systems are discussed here with examples and functions.In the science of the general State, the system of government is a system of constitutional law, whether in the form of monarchy or republic.Governance system can be defined as a whole system that work interdependent with each other and very influential in achieving government goals and functions.
Every country that stands must have its own system. Because a country’s goal is to regulate its people. And if the state does not have a system then it is certain that the country will surely experience the destruction.Systems are created in each country. But the goal is still one that is to regulate the people of that country. Therefore a government system was established to organize a state. The system of government is determined by its own people. In order to achieve the vision of the mission that has been determined by all the people.
Each country has the right to choose its own system of government. The term system of government comes from two words in Indonesian, namely the word “system” and “government”. This means that the party has the right to give orders or decide on a particular policy.
Being A Political Science Student, You Must Know The Types of Government Systems In The World
The Parliamentary System of Government
It is a system of government in which the parliament or legislature has an important role in government.The parliamentary system is a system of government in which parliament plays an important role in government. The most widely used system in government systems worldwide.
The characteristics or characteristics of parliamentary government are as follows:
- King, queen or president as head of state has no government power.
- The head of government is the prime minister
- Parliament is the only institution whose members are directly elected by the people through the general election.
- The executive is the cabinet responsible to the legislature or parliament.
- If the parliament issues a no-confidence vote to a particular minister or all ministers then the cabinet must submit its mandate to the head of state.
- In the two-party system designated to form a cabinet as well as prime minister is the chairman of the winning political party.
- In many party systems the cabinet formation forms a coalition and gets parliamentary confidence.
- If there is a dispute between the cabinet and the parliament then the head of state considers the correct cabinet then the parliament is dissolved by the head of state.
If the parliament is dissolved then the responsibility for the implementation of the election lies with the cabinet within 30 days. If the political party that controls the parliament wins the election then the cabinet will continue to govern. But if the winner in the election is the opposition party then the cabinet returns the madat to the head of state and the winning party of the election will form a new cabinet.
- Presidential government system, is the overall working relationship between state institutions through the separation of state power, here the president is the key in managing the power of running the state government.The presidential government system not only puts the president at the center of the executive power, but also the state power which automatically makes the president the head of state.
The characteristics or characteristics of the Presidential government system are as follows:
- President as head of state as well as head of government.
- Cabinet or council of ministers formed by the president.
- President is not responsible to parleme
- The President can not dissolve parliament
- The Minister should not be a member of parliament
- The Minister is responsible to the president
- The term of office depends on the president’s confidence.
- The role of the executive and legislature is balanced with thecheck and balancessystem .
The system of government in the communist state
The legislature in the Soviet Union is run by an institution called the Supreme Soviet URRS (STU) consisting of two assemblies, the Union assemblies and the assemblies of nations. The union reflects the common interests of the entire population of URSS (like the House of Representatives) while the assemblies of nations reflect the nations and tribes in the URSS region (sort of Senate). The highest civic (STU) chooses the highest soviet presidium (a kind of MPR working body) which is a very powerful institution in the Soviet Union.
The Executive Power is administered by the responsible ministerial council and is subject to the URSS Highest power. The real power of government in the Soviet Union was in the hands of communist party leaders.
Referendum Government System
In the Swiss state lawmaking is under the control of the people who have the right to vote. The monitoring was conducted in the form of a referendum. Referendum there are 3 types:
- The Obligatory Referendum is a referendum which must first get a direct approval from the people before a particular Constitution comes into force.
- Referendun Fakultatif is a referendunm conducted if within a certain time after the Act is implemented, a certain number of people want menginginka referendum. If the result of the referendum requires the enactment of the Act it will continue to apply, but vice versa.
- Consultative Referendum is a referendum on technical matters. Usually the people do not understand about the material of the law requested approval.
The Kolegial System
The system has presidents and vice presidents elected by seven members of the Federal Council for tenure each year. The system is implemented in Switzerland where seven members of the federal council are jointly leading the Swiss State and government.
The following is a list of countries that use presidential and parliamentary government systems. Countries with a system of parliamentary government itself is divided into two parts, namely the republic and monarchy.
State with parliamentary system (republic)
- Timor Leste
- Marshall Islands
- San Maruno
- south Africa
- Trinidad Tobago
- Cape Verde
- Czech Republic
Countries with parliamentary systems (monarchy)
- Great Britain
- Selendia Baru
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitss
- Solomon Islands
State with a presidential system
- United States of America
- Costa Rica
- Domonican Republic
- El Salvador
- Sierra Leone
- Southern Sudan