Strabismus is a visual problem in which the eyes are not aligned properly, ie do not point in the same direction . While one eye is facing forward, the other may be diverted inward, outward, upward or downward.
Converging strabismus , also called esotropia, is characterized by an inward-facing eye. Divergent strabismus , also known as exotropia, occurs when the eye is turned outward. Vertical strabismus is characterized by an upturned eye (hypertropia) or downward (hypotropia).
Strabismus may be present from birth due to genetic factors . However, diseases and conditions that affect the brain are also among the causes of childhood strabismus, such as cerebral palsy, Down’s Syndrome, hydrocephalus, brain tumors, and prematurity.
However, Strabismus Can Also Arise Later, With The Following Main Causes:
- Neurological diseases;
- Vision diseases, such as high-grade hyperopia;
- Head trauma;
The appearance of a strabismus in adulthood almost always results in the appearance of diplopia and is caused by paralysis or restriction of one of the extraocular muscles. Frequent causes of strabismus in adults are ischemia (“small stroke”), head trauma, tumors or underlying systemic diseases.
Symptoms of Strabismus: Most strabismus patients are asymptomatic. In some types of strabismus, the patient may experience headaches, eye pain and drowsiness during visual tasks. The complaint of double vision is usually observed in adult patients.
In addition to deviated gaze, other evidence of strabismus may appear, including:
- Closing an eye or adjusting the position of the head as a way to compensate for the deviation
- Double vision (see the same thing duplicated)
- Unstable images
- Eye fatigue
- Feeling the eye “wander.
Strabismus may be present early in life or appear later in childhood. It may also appear even later, even in adults, in this case usually caused by some non-ocular physical illness such as diabetes and neurological diseases, or due to a head trauma .
Treatment of Strabismus
The basis of treatment will depend on the type of strabismus.
Cap and glasses in childhood
In childhood, strabismus can lead to the development of amblyopia of one eye, popularly known as lazy eye.
Therefore, it is necessary to use the buffer over the other eye to allow the development of the delayed and thus equalize the vision.
The glasses can also be used to help in focusing the images and treat associated refractive errors, such as farsightedness.
Then, when the vision problems are solved, the surgical treatment is done, which aims to reposition the eyes properly.
It is important to emphasize that the treatments mentioned are not exclusive. The cap treats the asymmetry of vision and surgery realigns the eyes, so they are complementary.
In some cases, treatment of strabismus can still be done with botulinum toxinapplication , although most require surgery.
This treatment paralyzes pastes of the ocular muscle, allowing the muscular rebalance and the alignment of the look.
Glasses with prisms
In the squint of appearance in adult life there is the complaint of diplopia (double vision), a symptom quite disturbing, but that can be eliminated with special glasses with prisms.
The child has strabismus treatment as any other type of strabismus. If strabismus is accommodative, the treatment involves the correction of refractive error (hyperopia) with glasses. If it is another type of strabismus, the correction should be surgical in the extraocular muscles.
Strabismus ;Treatment In Adulthood
In adults with latent strabismus (forias), the use of glasses, if they present refractive error and orthotic exercises may be useful in maintaining the alignment of the eyes.
The forms of manifest strabismus in the adult need an ocular surgical intervention to straighten the eyes.
If strabismus occurred because of loss of vision, it has to be corrected first, and only later, if surgery is to be carried out in order to be successful.
If the correction of refractive errors is important in any person, in the patient with strabismus, their correction is fundamental, usually done through the use of glasses.
Strabismus Has A Cure?
In a large majority of cases, strabismus has a cure . The cure of strabismus always involves a surgical intervention to the extraocular muscles, except in the accommodative strabismus in which the cure passes through the optical correction (hypermetropia) with glasses or contact lenses ( correction of strabismus ).