SOME FAMOUS MUSLIM SCIENTISTS
Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi
He was born (A.D. 780-847) in Khawarizm. He was one of the greatest scientists of all times and contributed richly in the field of Mathematics, Astronomy and Geography. He was considered as an ) ^ authority on mathematics. He composed the oldest works on arithmetic, algebra and astronomical tables. He actually systematized the Greek and Hindu mathematical knowledge. His celebrated work on algebra entitled “Hisab al Jabr Wal Muqabala” translated in Latin, was used as the principal mathematical text-book until the 16th century by European universities. He was an astronomer of outstanding ability. He was also a geographer of repute and laid the foundation of geographical science in Arabic. He has been called “the principal figure in the early history of Arabic Mathematics”. He wrote a great thesis on Algebra including analytical solutions of quadratic equations. He authored the following important books:
Hisab Al Hindi
Al Jama-Wat Tafri
Kitab al Amal bil Asturlab
Kitab Ama of Asturlab
Kitab Surat al Ard
- Jabir Ibn Hayyan
Jabir Ibn Hayyan (A.D. 721-815) known as Geber in the West, was a great practical chemist of his time. He prepared a large number of important chemicals like, Nitric Acid, Sulphuric Acid _and Hydrochloric Acid. He is considered as god-father of modern chemistry. He is known for his various chemical techniques and processes like, melting distillation, reduction and calcinations in chemistry.
Several of his chemical treatises were translated into several European languages. He invented dynamic sound views methods for chemical research, and also pointed out the theory of the geological formation of metals. He authored the following important books:
Kitab al Rahfnah
Kitabal Taj mi
Book of Seventy
Composition of Alchemy
2 Abu Ishaq Kindi
Al-Kindi was born in Basrah in the beginning of the 9th century A.D. He was a great physicist, known as Al-Kindus in the West. He wrote a treatise on geometrical and physiological optics. He also researched for the ultimate laws that govern and control the fall of bodies. He also worked and researched on weight and loss, optics fiber, and reflection of light.. His important treatises are:
De Medicinarum Compsitarum Gradibus
3 Zakariya al-Razi.
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi (A.D. 865-925) was a great Muslim physician by profession. He is better known as Rhazes in the West. His other fields of interest were physics and chemistry. He was the most brilliant pillar of Islamic medicine along with Ibn Sina. He also contributed in the fields of music, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and ethics. He earned the title .of-the Father of Pediatrics by writing his monograph on “Diseases in children”.
He believed in five eternal principles in metaphysics namely Creator, Soul, Matter, Time and Space. He was also an excellent teacher of medicine. He made an attempt to classify chemical substances. He was the first scientist to classify substances into vegetables, animals and minerals.
His famous books are:
(i) Arabian Medicine
Kitab A1 Mansuri
A1 Judari Wal Hasbah
Fi Jamal il Musuqi
(5) Abu Ali Sina
Abu Ali Hussain Ibn Abdullah Ibn Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Sina was born in A.D. 980 at Turkistan. He is considered as the greatest intellectual giant of the middle Ages. He contributed to medical science, human and natural philosophy, brain logic, mathematics, astronomy science and music. He was an unforgettable physician of all times. He is better known a Avicenna in the West. His most famous book ‘A1 Qannun fil Tib’, known as Canon in Latin, was translated in many languages and it remained the sole textbook of medicine for several hundred years in Western Universities.
He was unparallel versatile genius. It is said that he wrote no less than 230 books and treaties. He fell victim to a disease in which he was a specialist and breathed his last at the age of 57 in A.D. 1037. The Canon of a Avicenna, consisting of approximately a million words, is the most influential text-book ever written. For six centuries it dominated the medical schools of Asia and Europe. He was the first to use catheters made of the skins of various animals, and he mentioned and discovered intravesical injections by means of a silver syringe.
His famous books are:
Abu Rayhan Muhammad Al-Biruni was born near the town of Khawarizm in A.D. 973. He was at the same time a physician, astronomer scientist, mathematician, physicist, geographer historian and human nature philosopher. He was a born writer ad he never had a pen out of his hand. He learnt Sanskrit language in order to investigate Indian knowledge. He explained the problems of advanced trigonometry. It was he who first time discovered that light travels faster than sound. He accurately determined the weight of 18 stones in physics. He gave an understanding to the terms of longitudes and latitudes. He died at the age of 75 years in A.D. 1048. He was the author of the following famous books.
7 Ibn Al-Haitham
Abu Ali A1 Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham, better known as Alhazan in the West, was born at Basrah in A.D. 975. He was an outstanding mathematician, physiologists and optician. He is more known for his optical works which were translated into Latin, He explained the refraction of light rays through transparent objects, “discovered fisrt time magnifying lenses and the function of retina as the seat of vision. He identified gravity as a force, a theory which was later on developed by Newton. He died in Cairo in A.D. 1039. He observed the semi-lunar shape of the image of the Sun during eclipses on a wall opposite a fine hole m~ the window-shutters-the first record of the camera obscura. His famous books are:
(i) Uyunul Ariba fi Tabaqaat il Atibba
(ii) Kitab ALManazir
(Hi) On Twilight Phenomena
Configuration of the Universe
8 Ibn Al-Baitar.
Abu Muhammad Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Al-Baitar was born in Malaga (Spain) at the end of the 12th century. He was great Spanish Muslim botanist and pharmacist. He made a” complete collection of plants and herbs extending from Spain to Syria. He discovered many new plants and extracted medical drugs from them. His work was considered an authority in plants and he gave new orientation to the classification and nomenclature of ‘plant kingdom over which modern botany is based. He died in Damascus in A.D. 1248. He was the author of the following famous books:
Kita Al-Jami fi Adwiya A1 Mufzada
9 Ibn Rushd
Abdul Waleed Muhammad Ibn Ahmed Ibn Muhammad Ibn Rushd was born in Spain in AD. 1126. He is better known as Averroes in the West. He contributed in philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, logic and Islamic Jurisprudence. He was an authority on Fiqh. He investigated astronomy at length and discovered the sunspots. He died in A.D. 1198. His famous books are:
(i) Hidayat Al-Mujtahid Wa Nihayat A1 Muqtasid
Kitab Fi Karkal A1 Falak
Kitab Fasl A1 Maqal
Kitab A1 Lashf A1 Manahij
10 A1 Mawardi.
Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib, Abul Hasan Al- Mawardi was born at Basrah in. A.D. 1058. He was a learned jurisconsul and political economist. He was an expert on diverse subjects like religion, ethics, literature and politics. He died in A.D. 1123. He was author of the following famous book.
11 Nasir Al-Diri Toosi.
Nasir Al-Din, Toosi was born in A.D. 1201 in Toos. He contributed in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, optic geography, medicine, philosophy, logic, music, mineralogy ^and_ath.ics. He was a versatile scholar and astrologer. He goes built the Maragha observatory for astronomical researches He was also an expert on mathematics and he earned great popularity by writing “The Ilkhanian Tables”.
This work is divided into four books namely, (i) CHINESE, GREEK, ARABIC AND PERSIAN CHRONOLOGY (ii) MOTIONS OF THE “PLANETS, (iii) EPHERMERIDE and (iv) ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. He died in Baghdad in A.D. 1274. He wrote a treatise on the Quadrilateral, “a work in which Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical”, found its first methodically developed and deliberate expression. His other famous books are:
Kitab A1 Tazkira A1 Nasirya
Kitab A1 Tahsil Fil Najum
Qawaid Al-Handasa »
Kitab Shakl A1 Qatta
12 Abul Qasim Al-Zahrawi.
Abul Qasim Al-Zahrawi, better known as Mamoon of the West, was born in A.D. 936 in Spain. He was a great surgeon. He invented many surgical appliances, never known before. He was a physician as well. He was an excellent dentist also and he could very successfully set an artificial tooth in place of diseased. He gave perfection to the surgical science. He died in A.D. 1013. He was the author of the following famous book:
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Al-Battani, a great Arab Astronomer and Mathematician, was born around A.D. 858. He widened the scientific horizons of Astronomy beyond the Greek metaphysical concepts. He was an excellent observer of lunar and solar eclipses. He had great command in trigonometry and he established the relation between the slides and angles of a spherical triangle. he explained the phenomenon of Equinoxes .He also prepared the Islamic lunar calendar, he died in A.d 929. His famous book was Kitab al zig.