Electrical conductor is simply transfer of electricity through matter. In metals conduction is due to a flow of electrons (q.v.) from points at low potential to points at higher potential. The electrons are derived from the atoms of the material, and the atoms take no part in the movement. Metals f contain many ‘free’ electrons that move with little hindrance from the parent atoms, and they ; are therefore good conductors.
What Is The Role of Electrical Conductor In Electrical Current
In the other solids the electrons are more tightly bound to the , atoms and conduction is less.conduction in gases and in many liquids involves a flow not merely of electrons, but of atoms or groups of atoms as well. When a salt, sodium chloride for example, is dissolved in water the chlorine atoms each gain an electron and become negatively t charged, while the sodium atoms each lose one and become positively charged. These charged atoms, or ions, can move through the liquid and transport electricity.
Gases are, under normal circumstances, almost incompletely non-conducting. They may be ‘ionized’ by irradiation with X-rays or by radioactive radiations. They are more readily maintained in s a conducting state at high temps., as in the a. electric arc, or at low pressures, as in electric e discharge lamps. At very low temps. c certain metals such as lead become almost i perfect conductors, and if a current is set up in a y ring of a metal in this superconducting state the e current persists for a long time without any I energy being supplied.
In all other cases the flow 3 of a current through a conductor is accompanied e by a loss of energy as heat, and a continuous supply of energy is required to maintain the I, current. A magnetic field is e always present in the space around a conductor s in which a current is flowing.